The addiction of methamphetamine amongst juvenile’s and adults has reached epidemic proportions that affect the individual, families and communities. Methamphetamine abuse has crossed all social economic boundaries that have negatively impacted law enforcement, social and clinical services. According to Anglin, Burke, Perrochet, Stamper and Dawud-Noursi (2000), methamphetamine, also known as meth, crystal, or speed, is a substance that affects the central nervous system creating a stimulant effect that can be injected, smoked, snorted, or ingested orally. Individuals who use meth for an extensive period of time tend to become addicted and will likely need to continue to use meth at high levels for its effects to continue to provide the euphoric symptoms and sensations. Anglin, et al, also describe methamphetamine as a derivative of amphetamine, this form of amphetamine was often used for medication purposes in the 1950’s and 1960’s to treat symptoms of depression and obesity. Durell, Kroutil, Crits-Christoph, Barchha, and Van Brunt (2008), also stated that illicit methamphetamine use is a public health concern in the United States with an increase use among teens and young adults in the 1990s. The Mental Health Services Administration conducted a national survey on meth use in the United States and found that currently as least a half a million of Americans used or have used methamphetamine. Meth use is an epidemic that is slowly becoming a destructive
Methamphetamine also affects the user’s mouth. This is often referred to as “meth mouth.” There are several factors which, when combined, create an environments that destroys the teeth, the blood supply and supporting tissues. Methamphetamine users are unable to take care of daily tasks, such as brushing and flossing, due to the crash affect of this drug which can last many days. When they are awake for long periods of time the energy bursts they experience do not allow them to concentrate
According to the Diagnostic Statistic Manual 5 (DSM-5) substance use disorder is when the individual has a dependency on alcohol or drug, followed by penetrating craving and antisocial behavior to acquire the substance. The terms substance abuse and substance dependence refer to substance use disorder, which has been separated into three classifications as follows
The effects of drug addiction make up an infinite list but its greatest effect is on the brain. Drug addicts experiment with substance abuse depending on the side effects of the drug used. If the drug is an opioid or painkiller, then the subject might be in a sleepy and stoic state. If it was a catalyst then the person is going to exhibit an excited and emotional behavior (i.e. talking a lot, laughing at nothing, babbling, and going through extreme emotion changes.) Depending on the type of drug the subject might even experience hallucinations that can cause them to even commit suicide (“Gwinnell, Esther, and Christine Adamec”). Some superficial indicators that a person is abusing these types of substances are bloodshot eyes, rapid weight lost, needle tracks, runny nose, and even poor personal hygiene. The side effects of drug abuse, as previously mentioned are magnified when it comes to the family. If the abuser is one or both of the parents/ guardians, the child might end up being mistreated and/or not taken care of. Furthermore, if the mother is pregnant, the baby might be born premature or underweight, have mental or physical problems, or have a disruptive later on in life.
Methamphetamines (Meth) cause a wide array of problems with its users, a lot of which are permanent. Meth’s affects range from neurological issues, alertness, paranoia, and aggression. It also leads to psychological and physical disorders. Because Meth is a stimulant, it can cause the user to be up for days and even weeks at a time causing stress to the body and can result in over exerting oneself and inevitably something will give. Personal problems from users will be talked about, as well as scientific studies on the Meth epidemic.
Individuals with a mental illness often turn to drugs or alcohol to reduce their symptoms, as opposed to or in addition to seeking treatment for their illness. This problem is much worse than previously imagined, with experts estimating 65 percent of prison inmates suffering from a dual diagnosis. The prevalence in the general population is likely very high also, thus anyone with a mental illness or substance abuse problem may find they need specialized care.
Generally, a person will go through a cycle of predictable behavior after starting meth. Immediately after taking it the user will feel a rush which involves the most exhilarating feelings. Next, they experience the high which can last for several hours. The actual rush and high is what everyone is trying to achieve. In order to keep this high the user will often binge, meaning they will continue to take meth for hours. This binge can last for days. Eventually the user will experience “tweaking” which may cause the user to become violent or delusional. Finally the user will experience the crash. Since the addict has been using meth for several days they may have had little or no sleep and their bodies have become
The physical, emotional, and psychological effects of addiction have the potential to make the addict vulnerable to a great many symptoms and disorders including paranoia, depression, anxiety, PTSD and other co-existing mental disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, heart attack, organ failure, hepatitis B & C, memory lapses, incontinence, poor oral health and gum disease, skin lesions and disease, and many more.
Long-term consequences of meth abuse include increased heart rate, permanent damage to blood vessels of heart/brain, malnutrition, xerostomia (meth mouth), disorientation, lack of enthusiasm, confused exhaustion, psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, depression, epilepsy, stroke, liver/kidney/brain and lung damage, convulsions, heart attack, stroke and even death can occur due to the stimulant effects of meth because it causes the heart to race and the blood vessels to constrict. The side effects involved with taking a large amount of meth are agitation, chest pain, heart attack, heart stops, coma, difficulty breathing, kidney damage, possible kidney failure, paranoia, seizures, severe stomach pain, stroke, uncontrolled vocal outbursts, tics, trembling or shaking of the hands/feet, change in taste buds, unusual or unpleasant taste, insomnia, headache, dizziness, faintness, swelling of the feet or lower legs, and unusual tiredness or
Short term effects of meth include; loss of appetite, increased heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature. Other short term effects include; dilation of pupils, disturbed sleep patterns, nausea, panic and psychosis, hallucinations, hyperexcitability, irritability, and bizarre, sometimes erratic behavior. Long term effects of meth are; Permanent damage to blood vessels of heart and brain, high blood pressure leading to heart attacks, strokes, and death, liver, kidney, and lung damage. If this drug is sniffed it will lead to the destruction of the tissues in the nose. If this drug in smoked it will result in respiratory problems. If this drug is injected it will lead to infectious diseases, and abscesses. Other long term effects are; malnutrition, weight loss, severe tooth decay, disentoritation, apathy, confused exhaustion, strong psychological dependence, psychosis, depression, and damage to the brain will be done that is similar to alzheimer's diseases, stroke, and epilepsy. (Short Term & Long Term & Deadly Effects)
Past research has shown that there is a correlation between substance abuse and mental illness. Some clinicians believe that the addiction should be treated first. Other school of thought believes that the mental illness should be addressed and treated first. The debate continues to go on as to whether the addiction or mental illness should be treated first. More clinicians are learning that if able, they should treat both at the same time. The goal should be to treat the addiction and mental illness at the same time to get the client stable and healthy. Both are important and should be treated as co-occurring. It seems unrealistic to think that one is not dependent on the other. Since co-occurring diagnosis happen more frequently in people who abuse substances or have an addiction, naturally substance abuse would have a negative effect on their family. Families get ¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬¬caught in the middle of their loved one’s addiction or drug use and becomes not only about the person using but impacts everyone around them. It is important to focus on the individual and the family. Family support is vital in increasing the chance of being
Methamphetamine addiction is a serious public health problem with many consequences and complications. Significant illness, including cardiovascular, infectious, pulmonary, dental diseases and other systems complications are associated with methamphetamine acute or chronic use. Methamphetamine dependence also causes serious cognitive impairments that can persist during abstinence and negatively affect recovery outcomes. There are no approved medications for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence.
Mental illness is another major reason why individuals start using drugs and eventually become dependent. Chronic drug abuse may occur in concurrence with any mental illness identified in the American Psychiatric Association (DSMIV). Some common serious mental disorders associated with chronic substance abuse include schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, manic depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and generalized anxiety disorder (National Drug Intelligence Center). Some people may use drugs on a regular basis as ways to self- medicate themselves if they are dealing with any
Substance abuse complicates almost every aspect of care for the person with a mental disorder. When drugs enter the brain, they can interrupt the work and actually change how the brain performs its jobs; these changes are what lead to compulsive drug use. Drug abuse plays a major role when concerning mental health. It is very difficult for these individuals to engage in treatment. Diagnosis for a treatment is difficult because it takes time to disengage the interacting effects of substance abuse and the mental illness. It may also be difficult for substance abusers to be accommodated at home and it may not be tolerated in the community of residents of rehabilitation programs. The author states, that they end up losing their support systems
Persons who suffer from untreated and/or undiagnosed mental illness are prone to turn to substance abuse in their attempts to self-medicate. Due to the mood-altering effects of substances, those who may experience anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms, tend to find temporary relief from such symptoms in their drug usage, however the adverse effects