Merleau-Ponty advocates that people get the essence through our bodies. The “body” means “an expressive mode of belonging the world through our perception, gesture, sexuality, and speech.” (Kearney, 1986; pp. 73). In other words, people cannot separate themselves from their perception of the world because it is the essential background of the experience. Different from Husserl’s reduction method to eliminate the embodied relationship to the world; Merleau-Ponty emphasizes the key idea of “ embodied consciousness” when we get the essence. Kleinman criticizes the positional objectivity, proposed by Sen, is the calculation of the similarities of a certain phenomenon. It cannot reflect the essence of the reality. Further, Kleinman points out that “All perspectives are positioned. What we observe depends upon where we are “ (Kleinman, 1995; p.72). Hence, the position is inevitable when we try to understand a phenomenon. Furthermore, he emphasizes the objectivity of knowledge is established based on the social value. “ Who are the truly deserving; which problems are most serious; who would benefit most from specific public health intervention (Kleinman, 1995; p.84)”. Researchers also have to take the social history or local context into consideration to get the essence. The knowledge is established between the connection of narratives and numbers.
The linkages between two authors Both the authors emphasize the researcher’s perspective or position is