Mesopotamia, Egypt, And The Indus River Valley

901 Words Oct 1st, 2015 4 Pages
Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus River Valley were all civilizations situated near rivers. In Mesopotamia, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers rose annually but were prone to flooding. In Egypt, on the other hand, the Nile River had predictable flooding and was and still is the longest river in the world. It was also easy to traverse due to southern wind patterns and northern currents. In the Indus Valley, people lived near the Indus River, hence the name. Also, they were isolated, surrounded by the Himalayas, just as Egypt was isolated, surrounded by deserts, mountains, seas, and cataracts. On the other hand, Mesopotamia was more open and vulnerable to invasion. In all three cradles, agriculture began independently. As a result of the agricultural revolution, increasing populations undoubtedly did some damage to the environment. However, the Egyptians had a more sustainable agricultural system than the Mesopotamians. In Egypt, most villages and farms hugged the Nile River; on the other hand, in Sumer, deforestation, soil erosion, and the increasing salinization of the soil led to a sharp decrease in crop yields. This, along with unpredictable flooding, led Mesopotamians to view humankind as caught in an inherently disorderly world. Due to a more stable environment, Egyptians shared a more cheerful and hopeful outlook on the world. Religion played a major role in each of the cradle’s societies. The people of the Fertile Crescent shared a common religion, but each city-state…
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