Mesopotamia, Egypt, And The Indus River Valley

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Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus River Valley were all civilizations situated near rivers. In Mesopotamia, the Tigris and Euphrates rivers rose annually but were prone to flooding. In Egypt, on the other hand, the Nile River had predictable flooding and was and still is the longest river in the world. It was also easy to traverse due to southern wind patterns and northern currents. In the Indus Valley, people lived near the Indus River, hence the name. Also, they were isolated, surrounded by the Himalayas, just as Egypt was isolated, surrounded by deserts, mountains, seas, and cataracts. On the other hand, Mesopotamia was more open and vulnerable to invasion. In all three cradles, agriculture began independently. As a result of the…show more content…
In Egypt, the pharaoh served as God and king. The Sun God was the “main” God, leading to discussion today over whether Egyptians technically practiced monotheism before the Hebrews. However, King Tut later reverted back to polytheism. They had a main focus on the afterlife, which explains why they mummified their dead. The people of the Indus Valley were polytheistic and worshipped some female deities. Divisions in the land took place in each of these three early civilizations. Mesopotamia was a loose confederation of walled-off city-states each ruled by a king. Rivalry over land and water amongst these city-states often led to violent conflict. In fact, under the rule of the Assyrians, these walls were 5 to 7 stories high and a hundred feet thick in some places. Egypt was not as divided as Mesopotamia and was ruled by a pharaoh who served as God and king. The Indus Valley people were the first to use zoning, or when certain areas are designated as residential, commercial, and for manufacturing. Unlike in the Fertile Crescent, there was little indication of political hierarchy or centralized states. The Ziggurat, the largest structure in many of the Mesopotamian city-states, served as a temple or pyramid, while many of the around 70 cities of the Indus Valley had citadels, or two-story buildings with a “bath” on top that represented a centralized authority. In contrast, the pyramids of Egypt showed job
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