Methods of Irrigation

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The manner in which water is applied to the land is commonly referred to as method of irrigation. These methods are adopted to apply irrigation water to the crop depending on the landscape, amount of water and equipment available, the crop and method of cultivation of crop. The main aim of these methods is to store water in the effective root zone uniformly and in maximum quantity ensuring minimum water loss and to get optimum yield.

Various methods of irrigation are:

1. Surface method
2. Sub-surface method
3. Sprinkler method
4. Drip method

Surface method

In the surface system, water flows by gravity either through furrows basins or borders. In this type, water loss by conveyance and deep percolation is heavy
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1. Initial capital investment for a surface irrigation system is usually lower than for sprinkler or drip systems,
2. Surface irrigation systems have relatively low energy requirements in routine operations,
3. Certain fruits and vegetables which can be damaged by sprinkling because of leaf scorch from salt residue of sprinkled water can be safely irrigated by surface systems,
4. Surface systems can avoid wind drift and canopy interception losses common in sprinkler irrigation, and
5. Most important advantage of surface irrigation is its mechanical simplicity and easy adaptation to small land holdings.
6. Principal disadvantages of surface irrigation systems are their low application efficiencies, waste of water, water table raise, water logging and salinization

Wild Flooding

This is the primitive and least controlled of all surface irrigation systems. Water is delivered to the upper part of the plot and allowed to spread over the land in accordance with the natural topography. Distribution of water is highly uneven. Consequently, part of the area becomes water logged, while other part remains &y leading to eventual pattern of crop growth.

Controlled Flooding
Land is leveled or graded and subdivided by means of channels and ridges. Water is guided to each of the subdivisions. Depending on the manner in which the land is divided, controlled flooding methods are named differently (Fig 5.3).

Basins are small level plots surrounded
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