Microbial Communities Found Within the Human Body.

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Microscopic studies of the human body have found that microbial cells greatly outnumber somatic cells with National Institutes of Health estimating the figure to be around 90%; these either being bacterial, fungal or otherwise non-human. Even though DNA sequencing techniques have allowed scientists to analyse the structures components and functions of some of these normal microbiota, a large fraction of them still remain unstudied and so therefore we have not yet understood the full extent as to the influence that they have on our physiology and development thus how effective our immunity and nutrition is.

Some of these microorganisms, known as microbiomes live in the body in areas covered by epithelial cells and exposed to the external
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The one specifically in the intestinal tract, help manufacture chemical compounds to break down complex waste products and show relationships in the development of the GI tract and other systems.
In the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum) only a few commensals can survive because it is close to the stomach’s acidic environment and inhibitory action of bile and pancreatic secretions. It is only until further down at the ileum do anaerobic gram-negative bacteria numbers increase as pH becomes more alkaline. The large intestine however has the largest microbial community in the body; very diverse ranges of between 300-500 species of commensal bacteria exist. Most of them being anaerobic, gram-negative, nonsporing bacteria and gram-positive, spore-forming, and nonsporing rods. These commensals are important as they absorb nutrients from the food we eat, produce essential vitamins and compete with pathogens to help fight infection.
If the intestinal environment is disturbed, i.e. stress, environmental and lifestyle changes, use of antibiotics etc. the normal bacteria change greatly and may show pathogenic character and may cause disease or infection.
An example of this is displayed by Candida albicans, which is genus of yeast that exists naturally in the small intestine, sometimes it overcomes probiptic microorganisms in number and strength and thefore can cause disease.

The skin acts as a barrier to

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