Microbiology Study Questions Essay

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Independent Study Questions 1.) What is the fundamental difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Procaryotic cells do not contain a membrane-bound nucleus or any membrane-bound organelles. Eurkaryotic cells contain both a membrane mound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles (making them far more complex).

2.) List and describe the two domains of prokaryotic organisms. a. Bacteria- Most are a specific shape (cylindrical, spiral, or spherical). Cell wall contains peptidoglycan. Multiply by binary fission. b. Archaea- Similar in shape, size, and appearance to Bacteria. Multiply by binary fission. Cell wall does not contain peptidoglycan.

3.) List and describe the four groups
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Cell wall also contains teichoic acids (negatively charged chains of a common subunit which various sugars attach to; they stick out of peptidoglycan layer and bind cations such as Mg2+) and lipoteichoic acids.
A Gram-negative cell is pink when Gram-stained. Its cell wall is characterized by a relatively thin layer of peptidoglycan. There is no presence of teichoic acids. The layer of peptidoglycan is surrounded by an outer membrane; the outer layer of this membrane is lipopolysaccharide.

4.) Describe the shape of a coccus versus a rod.
A coccus is a spherical-shaped bacterial cell while a rod is a rod-shaped bacterial cell (sometimes called a bacillus)

5.) Where is a cell’s cytoplasmic membrane relative to the cell wall?
Just proximal to the cell wall

6.) What is the role of the cytoplasmic membrane?
Serves as a selectively permeable barrier between the cell and its external environment (only a few substances are allowed to pass freely). Also transmits information about the external environment to the inside of the cell.

7.) Describe the structure of the cytoplasmic reticulum.
The structure is a phospholipid bilayer that is embedded with proteins. Phospholipid molecules are arranged in an opposing manner with the hydrophobic tails facing inward, and their hydrophilic tails facing out away from the other.

8.) What is the fluid mosaic model?
Membrane proteins are not stationary, but instead
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