As the flowchart shows, a series of tests were conducted to identify the unknown bacterium #65. Microscopic observation of the gram stain indicated a gram-positive coccus bacterium. S. epidermidis was used as the gram-positive control while E. coli was used as the gram-negative control. This observation led to the elimination of all gram negative and rod-shaped genera: Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Alcaligenes, Neisseria, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, Erwinia, Veillonella, Flavobacterium, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Lactobacillus, Listeria and Kurthia (2). By performing the catalase test, it was determined that the bacterium was catalase negative and it did not produce bubbles. M. luteus and E. faecalis were used as positive and negative controls, respectively.
The Unknown Bacteria 36/Bacteria # 2 on a TSA plate was examined by the naked eye and under a dissecting microscope. Bacteria # 2 was approximately 3 - 4 mm in diameter. They were circular in form with an entire margin and a flat elevation. The colonies were rough (granular), translucent, and white brownish color with black granules. The Gram stain resulted in a Gram negative rod. After the Gram stain was completed, the bacteria were streaked on an Eosin -Methylene Blue Agar plate and an Enterotube II was inoculated.
In a laboratory setting, it often becomes necessary to identify an unknown organism. In this experiment, researchers classified an unidentified bacterium based on its physical structure, colony morphology, optimal conditions and metabolic properties. A Gram stain using crystal violet, iodine, and safranin and a simple stain using methylene blue characterized the organism’s cell wall. Cultural behavior was classified by inoculating the organism onto nutrient agar and incubating it at 37° C for 48 hours, and observing its behavior, as well as using SIM medium to test for motility. Optimal growth temperature was
There are many reasons for knowing the identity of microorganisms. The reasons range from knowing the causative agent of a disease in a patient, so as to know how it can be treated, to knowing the correct microorganism to be used for making certain foods or antibiotics. This study was done by applying all of the methods that I have been learned so far in the microbiology laboratory class for the identification of an unknown bacterium.
1) Apply the stain to your first unknown slide and examine it under the microscope.
The biochemical tests, the Gram stain, the Bartholomew and Mittwer’s stain, the microscopic and macroscopic observations, and chemical sensitivity tests helped to identify the unknown bacteria as Citrobacter Freundii. Each biochemical test result maintained consistency with the
This experiment was conducted to find the genus and species of an unknown bacteria prescribed by the lab teacher, which was unknown bacteria GA3 in my case. Identification of unknown bacteria techniques are used on an every day basis to figure out what type of bacteria it is and to find the best method of how to treat a patient with this bacteria (1). All five “I’s” of Microbiology were used in the testing for the unknown culture. Inoculation was used several times to put the unknown culture into agar plates or into biochemical test tubes. After Inoculation of these tubes or plates, they always were placed into the incubator for further growth and development. Isolation was used to make sure we got the correct bacteria we were testing for. After each further isolation, we gram stained the culture and inspected the culture under a microscope to further help in the identification process of the unknown bacteria. Multiple tests were done on the unknown culture to make sure we were confident in what kind of bacteria the unknown was.
The first step toward identifying this unknown organism was to perform a Gram Stain to differentiate between gram positive and gram negative bacteria. This is an important step because it directs what the next tests will be. My Gram Stain on sample #12 showed that the bacteria was gram negative, however, after receiving the results of the OF glucose, H2S, Citrate, Urease and Motility tests, it was apparent that my Gram Stain was contaminated. I then performed a catalase test which came back negative, so I ordered a Bacitracin disc, Optochin disc and a CAMP test which had to be incubated overnight. After receipt of those test results,
The purpose of the following study is to determine where the two unknown bacteria acquired in Microbiology lab should be classified in regards to temperature, pH level, and osmoregularity. It is important to classify bacteria in order to identify them. Identification of bacteria is important because they are not only useful but potentially dangerous as well. The identification of bacteria can lead to breakthroughs in healthcare regarding treatment of old and new diseases alike. Identifying bacteria can also be used in many other areas from better crop production through microbial pesticides to biological warfare. Their uses are endless as are their abilities to evolve and adapt to changing environments. That is why it is so important
The main idea of this experiment was to correctly identify the unknown bacteria, #3. Identification of unknown bacteria yields multiple benefits in many different areas in the research of microorganisms. In this experiment I performed many different test dealing with things such as the presence of enzymes, fermentation abilities and different chemical reactions. Observations made from the tests were then compared to a gram negative unknown chart in order to identify the bacteria. Based off of my results and the chart, I concluded the bacteria #3 was the bacteria Escherichia coli. E. coli is most commonly found in the intestines of warm blooded organisms. Most E. coli strands are non pathogenic however, there are strands
One of these reasons is in regards to pathogens. If a bacterium is pathogenic, it is important to know the identity of the bacteria so that its characteristics can be examined and used in the treatment of the infected host. For example, if the identification of an unknown pathogen leads to the knowledge that the pathogen contains a beta-lactam ring in its cell wall, a drug targeting this cellular component can be used in the treatment of this pathogen. If this information was unknown and the pathogen did not contain a beta-lactam, the drug would not help the infected host. Another reason it is beneficial to identify unknown bacteria is for clinical uses. Many pharmaceutical drugs are based upon or isolated from products made by bacteria. Penicillin is an obvious example of a beneficial drug that was isolated from a mold. By identifying new bacteria and discovering the unique properties of a new or under researched species, beneficial medical products may be able to be derived or produced as a result. A third important reason to identify bacterial unknowns can tie into the safety and conservation of the environment. Because of the varying properties and abilities of bacteria, it is beneficial to identify bacteria that may be able to help clean up human impact. For example, Alcanivorax borkumensis, is a bacterium that has been discovered to aid in the cleanup of spilled petroleum. Other bacteria have been discovered to aid in eating pollution and other toxins in water. The identification of important bacteria such as these can lead to increased efforts in environmental conservation that use a more organic clean up approach.
A highly conserved gene will be used to identify a prokaryotic species isolated from the body. Fundamental lab techniques will be also explored and utilized, such as amplifying using PCR, cloning, and transforming the gene into a host cell. DNA electrophoresis and specific substrate plating will serve as analysis check points. The final product will be sequenced and compared to similar species to observe phylogenetic relationships.
The bacteria that was contained within Unknown tube #12 is believed to be Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Figure 1. The bacteria tested to be Gram Stain negative, producing a pink, red color retained from the staining process. When the species of bacteria was plated on nutrient media, the cells produced an irregular and spreading configuration as shown in Figure 2. This same plating test provided the margins and elevation, lobate and hilly, respectively. The specimen was stabbed in a Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM) tube using an inoculated loop of the bacteria. The results of this experimentation indicate the type of oxygen requirement of the bacteria. The test found the bacteria to be aerobic as colonies of the bacteria began to form along the top of the FTM tube (Manual 2017).
Another purpose of this experiment is to stress the importance of knowing the identity of a microorganism. Knowing the species of microorganism present in a sample provides a
In the world of microbiology it is vitally important to be able to discern the identities of microorganisms. Not only is it important in a lab setting but as well as in healthcare in general. Properly identify what strain of bacteria a person has will aid in the proper medicine and dose given. Throughout the semester we have learned about different types of bacteria and certain test that can clearly identify them. The purpose of this lab report is to identify a Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacterium. Using all the knowledge of procedures and lab techniques identify the unknown and discuss all the tests you performed.