Middle East Conflict Essay

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There is no set definition for the area known as the Middle East since shifts in global power over the years have affected the topography. Now, however, the region can expansively be said to contain “the area from Libya E to Afghanistan, usually including Egypt, Sudan, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the other countries of the Arabian peninsula” (dictionary.com). This geographical definition can be said to contain both the ‘Near East’, ‘Middle East’, and even farther to the East and into Africa be described as the ‘Greater Middle East’, so the Middle East can only be loosely defined, and it is important to know that these countries are separate and do not truly form one cooperative unit.
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In November of 1914, the Ottoman Empire neglected their neutrality, as the United States was to do later, and declared a jihad (holy war) against the Triple Entente. This resulted in an attack of the Suez Canal in February of 1915 which ended in failure; however it changed many things that could have happened in the war, such as forcing Britain to change its military stratagems.
From 1915 to 1920, the Ottoman Empire’s war against Great Britain was mainly unsuccessful, resulting in a Triple Entente army conquering the city of Jerusalem on December 11th, 1917 (BBC). Since it was mainly the British army which was fighting in the area, and the other two powers were out of commission after the war, the fall of the Ottoman Empire was the beginning of British rule in the area and the start of much instability and conflict in the region, which has continued into today. Also in this time period some promises were made by the British which were at odds with each other, the most notable being the Balfour Declaration in November of 1917. In 1916 Britain had secretly made an agreement with France to split the land in the Ottoman Empire when it was conquered, yet later that same year, The McMahon Correspondences promise independence to parts of the region. These contradictory secret promises are confused yet more with the Balfour Declaration in which Britain publically declares support for a Jewish state in Palestine.
In the years between World War I and the end

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