Middle Range Theory Essay

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Evolution of the Mid Range Theory of Comfort for Outcomes Research Katharine Kolcaba, PhD, RN, C The developmental stages of the mid range theory of comfort are discussed in this article, which includes its philosophic orientation and its inductive, deductive, and retroductive reasoning. Other steps that are described are the concept analysis of comfort, the operationalization of the outcome of patient comfort, the application of the theory in previous nursing studies, and the evaluation of the current theory as it has been adapted for outcomes research. This article is a guide that shows how a concept grows, becomes embedded in theory, is tested, and is adapted for the rapidly changing health care environment. The theory of comfort…show more content…
Those desires also must be satisfied to avoid “dire consequences.”4 Desires and aspirations for social support, to stay in their own homes, to be understood, to be financially stable, and to return to former function are entailed in the construct of holistic comfort that embodies physical, psychospiritual, social, and environmental needs.2 Because the theory is based on the needs of patients, it is a representation of what patients hope to receive from nurses who are assigned to their care. Two facets of human needs have been identified and described as reflexive. First, needs provide a motivational drive VOLUME 49 • NUMBER 2 Nurs Outlook 2001;49:86-92. Copyright © 2001 by Mosby, Inc. 0029-6554/2001/$35.00 + 0 35/1/110268 doi:10.1067/mno.2001.110268 86 Kolcaba NURSING OUTLOOK Evolution of the Mid Range Theory of Comfort for Outcomes Research Kolcaba that directs human behavior.4 Patients have implicit and explicit comfort needs that, when met, strengthen them and motivate them to perform better in therapy, rehabilitation, and learning/adhering to new health regimens.2 Second, needs are a force that is driven by social and cultural politics.4 Patient comfort needs are driven by expectations, and patients

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