Mineral Resources

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UNIT 2: Natural Resources 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2 RENEWABLE AND NON-RENEWABLE RESOURCES 2.2.1 Natural resources and associated problems 2.2.2 Non-renewable resources 2.2.3 Renewable resources a. Forest Resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. Timber extraction, mining, dams and their effects on forests and tribal people b. Water Resources: Use and over-utilisation of surface and ground water, floods, drought, conflicts over water, dams – benefits and problems. c. Mineral Resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral resources, case studies. 16 20 20 22 22 23 26 30 32 d. Food Resources: World food problems, Changes in landuse by agriculture and grazing, Effects of modern…show more content…
Large stretches of land such as forests, grasslands and wetlands have been converted into intensive agriculture. Land has been taken for industry and 16 Environmental Studies for Undergraduate Courses Chapter2.p65 16 4/9/2004, 5:07 PM the urban sectors. These changes have brought about dramatic alterations in land-use patterns and rapid disappearance of valuable natural ecosystems. The need for more water, more food, more energy, more consumer goods, is not only the result of a greater population, but also the result of over-utilization of resources by people from the more affluent societies, and the affluent sections of our own. Industrial development is aimed at meeting growing demands for all consumer items. However, these consumer goods also generate waste in ever larger quantities. The growth of industrial complexes has led to a shift of people from their traditional, sustainable, rural way of life to urban centers that developed around industry. During the last few decades, several small urban centers have become large cities, some have even become giant mega-cities. This has increased the disparity between what the surrounding land can produce and what the large number of increasingly consumer-oriented people in these areas of high population density consume. Urban centers cannot exist without resources such as water from rivers and lakes, food from agricultural areas, domestic animals from pasture lands and timber, fuel wood,
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