Minimally Invasive Robotic Laser Surgery in 2028

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Surgery has been around for thousands of years. Ever since man has felt pain, man has looked to surgery for relief. It started as a crude hole in the skull, and has evolved into techniques using lasers and robots.
One cutting-edge present technology that this paper will explore is the da Vinci Surgical Robotic System [1], which is being used at Johns Hopkins [2]. This system performs minimally invasive cardiac surgery; it makes the cuts more precise and saves lives. In the future, robotic surgery will become more advanced, as sensory feedback in the da Vinci system could be a future breakthrough that could revolutionize the whole concept of robotic surgery. We envision an improved da Vinci system, with sensory feedback, very precise
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Paré started the method of ligating (tying off) arteries to control bleeding, instead of the outdated method of cauterizing (searing) the bleeding part with a red-hot iron.
However, most surgery was restricted to procedures that didn’t penetrate deeply into the skin because it caused too much pain to open the abdomen, chest, or skull. In 1846 anesthesia was used by William Morton, a dentist. Morton is credited with the discovery of surgical anesthesia, but Crawford W. Long used anesthesia in 1842 to remove tumors but didn’t publish his results until 1849. Meanwhile, the ancient Chinese have been using anesthesia 1600 years before the Europeans. Hua Tuo, a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era, was the first person to perform surgery with the aid of anesthesia.
Surgeons began performing new types of surgery on the abdomen, brain, and spinal cord in the late 1800s. Blood groups A, B, and O were discovered by Austrian pathologist Karl Landsteiner which allowed transfusions, and blood banks were started in 1937.
There were more technological advances to permit surgeons to perform increasingly complex and difficult operations. The heart-lung machine was developed in 1953 by American surgeon John Gibbon for easier surgery on organs [3]. The operating microscope was developed in the 1950s providing surgeons with a way to perform operations on body structures like the inner ear and the eye, and recently enabling surgeons

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