Mitosis And The Phase Of Interphase Essay

1703 WordsNov 9, 20167 Pages
Mitosis results in the formation of two diploid daughter cells genetically identical to the diploid parent cell because the full sequence of DNA is replicated during the S phase of interphase. This creates two identical copies of DNA (if properly conducted without error, as is most often the case), but the chain remains in its unraveled form as chromatin until prophase of mitosis. Then, the chromatin condenses into chromosomes, and each pair of duplicated chromosome joins together. Each chromosome in the duplicated pair is now known as a sister chromatid. During metaphase, the sister chromatids align along the imaginary metaphase plate along the center axis of the cell; their positioning is aided by spindle fibers attached to the kinetochore proteins at the centromere of each sister chromatid pair. Once all sister chromatids are properly aligned, the enzyme separase breaks apart the bonds between the sister chromatids in anaphase, and each sister chromatid is now a standalone chromosome pulled towards opposite poles of the cell by shortening spindle fibers and motor proteins. In telophase, the final stage of mitosis, the nuclear envelope reforms around the unraveling chromosomes, one in each daughter cell, and the two cells split in a process known as cytokinesis. Because DNA had been duplicated during S of interphase, each daughter cell inherits the complete DNA sequence of the parent cell because as the chromosomes separate during anaphase and the cell splits

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