Mitral Valve Prolapse

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Mitral Valve Prolapse
Human Anatomy and Physiology II
Kristen Ammen

The mitral valve is located on the left side of the heart between the left atrium and left ventricle. The purpose of the mitral valve is to form a seal between these two chambers of the heart to prevent the back flow of blood. When blood enters the left side of the heart, it is oxygenated and enters through the pulmonary veins. The blood then travels through the left atrium; the bicuspid (mitral) valve then opens to let the blood flow down to the left ventricle. The left ventricle contracts, causing the mitral valve to close (preventing the backflow of blood).When the left ventricle contracts it is pumping the blood out to the remainder of the body. (Jenkins, 2007)
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The blood clot can then travel through an artery and cause a heart attack or if it travels to the brain can cause a stroke. Mitral valve prolapse can also lead to shortness of breath and chest pain. Mitral valve prolapse can lead to infections of the heart or other areas of the body. Mitral valve prolapse is rarely deadly. (American Heart Association, 2013) Mitral valve prolapse is usually detected through a routine physical. Most patients do not have any symptoms when the murmur may be heard. When auscultation occurs, you will hear a normal S1 and quiet systole. The valve will then have a mid-systolic click that is very pronounced. A crescendo-decrescendo is immediately heard after the mid-systolic click. This is best heard in the apex area of the chest. (Systolic Murmurs- Mitral Valve Prolapse) To properly diagnose the disorder an echocardiogram has to be done. An echocardiogram is an ultrasound of the heart that can show the characteristics of the valve and to examine if the valve is allowing leakage or backflow. (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 2011) Misdiagnosis in the past effected 5-15 percent of patients who were actually suffering from other conditions that were causing the valves to bulge and mimic mitral valve prolapse. In the years past doctors would prescribe antibiotics to patients who was having dental procedures done but The American Heart Association does not recommend the prescribing
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