Mode Of Delivery Affect On Stress Response At Birth And Possible Shift Of Hpa Axis
2256 WordsDec 8, 201410 Pages
Mode of Delivery Affects on Stress Response at Birth and Possible Shift of HPA Axis
Eastern Michigan University
Several journal articles were reviewed regarding the effects that mode of delivery had on cortisol (CORT) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) at birth and its possible long term effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Umbilical cord blood was collected immediately following delivery with a time frame of up to 20 minutes and analyzed for hormone concentrations. Studies indicate that significant differences in hormone concentrations can be seen between vaginal and caesarean delivery. Follow up studies indicate that that stress related biochemical change…show more content…
Schuller et al. (2012) showed that pain and stress responses in newborns can be measured by physiological parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and cortisol concentrations within bodily fluids. The body’s reaction to stress is governed by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). A major part of the neuoendorine system which consists of the interactions between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands. Rothenberg et al. (1996) found that exposure to stress either prenatally or during birth alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and influences the newborns further development. Similarly Kapoor et al. (2006) and Dean et al. (2001) found in animal and in human studies that prenatal stress causes increased cortisol concentrations at birth which may alter the circuitry of the HPA axis.
Furthermore, Gitau et al. (2004) found that fetal cortisol levels decreased in newborns delivered by cesarean section when compared to those delivered vaginally. In contrast Mears et al. (2004) reported elevated cortisol concentrations in assisted vaginal deliveries. Research has documented that there is some evidence supporting that birth mode determines stress response. (Taylor et al. 2000) As stated previously stress is psychosomatic, and causes or exacerbates a range of serious health issues. Knowledge of how our initial stress response at birth can modulate our reactions to stress could improve,