Model Neurons

Decent Essays
Have you ever wondered why we’re able to flex our muscles? Or maybe, how to we have the ability to memorize information? These questions can be answered simply, neurons. Neurons are special cells that transmit information to other nerve cells, muscles or gland cells. Neurons take up, process, and transmit information through electrical and chemical signals. The basic neuron is made up of three parts, the cell body, axons, and dendrites. The cell body contains the nucleus in which all genetic material and organelles (golgi body, mitochondria, etc.) is carried. Dendrites are short branched extensions that come out from the cell body. Theses branches bring in electrical signals into the body. Axons are long and thread like, they take info away…show more content…
Neuronal cell bodies also vary widely both in size (small, medium, large, and giant) and in shape (star-shaped, fusiform, conical, polyhedral, spherical, pyramidal). There are over 200 different kinds of neurons. Neurons can be classified by the direction that they send information. Scientists have also categorized neurons into four groups that are based on shape. Multipolar neurons are the most common in the vertebrate nervous system and have the structure of a model neuron: a cell body from which a long axon extends and dendrites branch from the cell body. Unipolar neurons are the most common invertebrate neuron and have structure of where the dendrites branch off from the axon instead of the cell body. Bipolar neurons have two axons extending from the cell with the dendrites and synaptic terminals on each side. Pseudo-unipolar neurons sense pressure, touch, and pain. Pseudo-unipolar have no true dendrites. They have two axons that extend from the cell body and synaptic terminals at the end. Scientists also classify neurons categorized by function and the direction it sends information. For example there are four basic types of the functional cell; sensory (or afferent) neurons, motor (or efferent) neurons, and interneurons. Sensory neurons send information from sensory receptors (ex. in skin, eyes, nose, ears, and tongue) toward the central nervous system. Motor neurons carry…show more content…
A group of neurological disorders that destroy motor neurons are called Motor Neuron Diseases (MND). One MND you might recognize is Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease). ALS is caused by the death of neurons; the nerve cells break down which reduces the ability to function. Because the motor neuron has died, the brain cannot initiate and control the muscles. With voluntary muscle action progressively affected, people may lose the ability to speak, eat, move and breathe. There are many more MNDs like primary lateral sclerosis, progressive muscular atrophy, progressive bulbar palsy, and pseudobulbar
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