Models of Disability (outcome 1)

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1. Outline the history and development of the medical, social and psycho-social models of disability

Medical:
The medical model defines a disability as something that is physically ‘wrong’ with a person’s body. This could be an illness or acquired damage to the body in an accident for example. The medical model views the human body as something which can be fixed or repaired if there is a problem with it.

The medical model of disability was started around the early 19th century, when physicians and doctors started to have a more prevalent influence on society. Modern medicine was beginning to make advances and priests were no longer seen as the only place people could go to for help.

In the 19th century it was very much believed that
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However, the phrase “substantially and permanently” is still used today in many Social Services departments.

Section 21 of the act gave the local authorities the power to provide accommodation for the elderly and “infirm”. It allowed anyone who could not get the care they needed at home to be accommodated by them. Section 22 gave them the power to charge for this accommodation, but this was based on individual cases and was means tested.

The act was introduced to coincide with the founding of the “new” NHS in 1948.

The Health Services and Public Health Act 1968 was then introduced with more provisions to promote the welfare of old people. A Department of Health and Social Security circular, series number DHSS(71)19 expanded this act to include various other provisions. Having meals brought to people’s houses, help with travelling, help with finding suitable accommodation, practical assistance at home and providing warden services for private housing were all included.

In the circular it is stated that “arrangements for services to the elderly who are not substantially and permanently handicapped” were to be made. This was “to promote the welfare of the elderly generally” and goes on to state that the intention is to “prevent or postpone personal or social deterioration or breakdown”.

Again, this act states that individuals may be charged for services, and that voluntary organisations could be employed as agents for any of the provisions in the act.

2 years
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