3.3. Explain the social and medical models of disability and the impact of each on practice
In a debate between the social construction of disability and the medical model, I would side with social construction of disability. Prior to reading Chapter 3 of Rethinking Disability, I would have sided with the medical model since that was the only approach I was made aware of. In all of my studies, this is the method that I was shown. I was taught that if a student presents symptoms of having a disability, the teacher would include the parents and the student to undergo all of the steps such as, the examination, diagnosis, prescription, and follow up. We are so used to this process that we do not look beyond it to analyze what this really means. As stated in the chapter, after these students are diagnosed with all these labels, society
Society often focuses on what a person lacks in terms of disability and focuses on condition or illness or a person’s lack of ability. Medical model of disability which views adults has having an impairment or lacking in some way
The sick were another group the government tried to help. A contributory scheme was introduced for workers in case of illness. At the time there was no free national health service and the poor usually could not afford medical help. The “National Insurance Act” of 1911 gave some medical benefits for the worker who, when working, had paid into the scheme which their employer and the government would then add too. One of the main causes of poverty was the sickness and subsequent absence from work so any amount of income during absence from work would benefit the worker and their family greatly. However there were many problems with the scheme. For a start the workers did not like the idea that 4 pence of their money every week would be taken from them despite the possibility they may not claim on their insurance and they may have need the 4 pence for their own survival at the time. Also, it was only the workers themselves who were able to claim from the insurance despite the difficulties another illness in the family may put upon the other family members. Thus, to be of greater use and to have been viewed in greater favour by many this scheme would need to
The NHS and Community Care Act 1990 states that wherever possible services should be provided in the community or in the home as a large amount of money was being spent on residential and care homes for the elderly. The Local authorities must carry out an assessment of needs and must arrange for the care or provision. Also the local authorities were encouraged to purchase care from a mixed economy, including statutory, private and voluntary sectors to encourage competition and increase choice. (Classroom notes, 2014) / (Patient, 2015)
The Medical Model regards disability as an individual problem. It promotes a traditional view of disability, that it is something to be ‘cured’, even though many conditions have no cure. The problem is seen as the disabled person and their impairment, not society, and the solution is seen as adapting the disabled person to fit the non-disabled world, often through medical intervention. Control resides firmly with professionals; choices for the individual are limited to the options provided and approved by the 'helping' expert.
The medical model of disability views disabilities as a problem that belongs to the disabled person. It is not seen as a problem that needs the concern of anyone else apart from the disabled individual affected, for example if a wheelchair user is unable to get into a building because there are steps then, the wheelchair is seen as the problem not the steps, according to the medical model.
In contrast to this, I have found while researching these models of disabilities that the social model is very different. It focuses more on the persons rights as a human and emotions than just medicine.
The safeguarding vulnerable groups act 2007 is an important piece of legislation in the residential home as the residents are older and may be suffering from dementia or Alzheimer’s which would make them particularly vulnerable.
The dominant model of disability for the majority of the 20th century was the medical model. The medical model’s emphasis is on impairment; this is the cause of the disadvantage disabled individuals face and therefore the site of interventions (Crow, 1996). It is based in the biomedical and clinical. It views disability as a personal tragedy, an idea which is often implicit in work around disability based on the medical model. (Oliver, 1990).
The Health and Social Care Act 2012 came into force with crucial principles including new structures and arrangements in health care services to safeguard and strengthen the future of NHS and maintain the modernisation plan. In this Act, many new changes has been made to a number of existing Acts, National Health Services Act (NHS 2006), in order to enable health care system to tackle the existing challenges and also avoid any potential crisis in future. It has also introduced the proper allocation of NHS fund and budget, and improved the integrated care between NHS and social care services to promote patients’ choice in terms of delivering quality care.
Taking care of the individuals that are getting older takes many different needs. Most of these needs cannot be given from the help of a family. This causes the need of having to put your love one into a home and causing for the worry of how they will be treated. It is important for the family and also the soon to be client to feel at home in their new environment. This has been an issue with the care being provided for each individual, which has lead to the need of making sure individuals have their own health care plan.
The funding mechanisms for social care services enable service user’s access to a range of services to support themselves in their own homes, institutional care and hospitals. In terms of finances a legislative framework was introduced, resources were transferred from the National Health Service and the Department of Social Security to local authorities, and social work departments were given a key role in the planning, assessment and commissioning of community care services.
In1948, the Nation Health Services separated both older people and disabled people into two categories one group who they thought was sick and the other group for the people needing care and attention. The people who were thought to be sick were placed in hospitals and the people who were thought to need care and attention were placed in residential homes. The local authorities were able to charge for the individuals using th residential homes even if they were deemed as sick or needing care and attention but
Old Age Pension,National Insurance, Industrial Injuries Insurance, Family Allowances and National Assistance together with War Pensions, constitute a comprehensive system of social security in the United Kingdom. The purpose of these programmes is that under no circumstances any one be allowed to fall below a certain minimum standard of living and the aged are also equally incorporated in this novel scheme. In England, an old age pension scheme financed from the Central Government Funds was started under the 1908 Act and it was free from the personal indignities of the Poor Law. In 1939, the pensions based on need for the old comprised a part of the social insurance and other allied services in Britain. A contributory old age widows’ pension scheme was also incorporated within this policy. These services were in addition to the services being given by voluntary organizations. Besides cash benefits, a number of services for the elderly in their homes are provided in Britain by various statutory and voluntary bodies to help old people to live there for as long as possible. A large proportion of the time of home nurses, health visitors and home-helps is spent on the needs of the elderly. ‘Good Neighbour’ and friendly visiting services are also arranged by local authority or voluntary organization to assist the elderly. Other services available to the aged include chiropody service, sitters-in,