Models of Managing and Planning for Managers

2670 Words11 Pages
Planning 1 How Managers Actually Plan and Manage The conventional prescribed models of managing and planning imply that managers' thinking and cognitive processes operate in a linear or circular fashion in a series of identifiable and distinct steps or phases. These rational models are based on the assumption that it is possible for all information relevant to an issue to be gathered in time and processed by the manager. It is also assumed that managers can successfully prioritize desired outcomes and strategies in terms of objective measures such as economic benefit and select the one with the greatest benefit or the least cost. Both these assumptions are unrealistic because they do not reflect the way managers really think and deal with the various forces trying to influence the planning and decision-making process. Managers plan under very different environmental circumstances from what the conventional models assume. Stone (2011) offers a more realistic alternative to the conventional model of planning based on economic thought. Her model explains how policy decisions are made in the public sphere but provides insight into how managers in business organizations think as well. Deborah's model is based on the assumptions that managers have to deal with competing political interests of several stakeholders and have to decide between them in a subjective rather than an objective way. They do not weigh costs and benefits in an economic fashion but use their negotiation
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