Models of Public Policy

1550 Words Nov 18th, 2010 7 Pages
MODELS FOR POLICY ANALYSIS
Uses of Models. The models we shall use in studying policy are conceptual models.

Simplify and clarify our thinking about politics and public policy Identify important aspects of policy problems Suggest explanations for public policy and predict its consequences
Selected Policy Models.

INSTITUTIONALISM: POLICY AS INSTITUTIONAL OUTPUT Government institutions have long been a central focus of political science. Public policy is authoritatively determined, implemented, and enforced by these institutions. The relationship between public policy and government institutions is very close. Strictly speaking, a policy does not become a public policy until it is adopted, implemented, and enforced by some government
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INCREMENTALISM: POLICY AS VARIATIONS ON THE PAST

Incrementalism views public policy as a continuation of past government activities with only incremental modifications. On the contrary, constraints of time, information, and cost prevent policymakers from identifying the full range of policy alternatives and their consequences. Incrementalism is conservative in that existing programs; policies, and expenditures are considered as a base, and attention is concentrated on new programs and policies and on increases, decreases, or modifications of current programs. Policymakers generally accept the legitimacy of established programs and tacitly agree to continue previous policies. Second, policymakers accept the legitimacy of previous policies because of the uncertainty about the consequences of completely new or different policies known programs when the consequences of new programs cannot be predicted. Conflict is heightened when decision making focuses on major policy shifts involving great gains or losses, or "all-or-nothing," "yes-or-no" policy decisions. This search

usually begins with the familiar-that is, with policy alternatives close to current policies. Only if these alternatives appear to be unsatisfactory will the policy-maker venture out toward more radical policy innovation.

5. GROUP THEORY: POLICY AS GROUP EQUILIBRIUM
Politics is really the struggle among groups to influence public policy.

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