Modern Architecture in Japan and India

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In any well-developed region and national culture there are periods of rejection of the past and periods of revival. These periods are often reflected through architecture as architects, developers, engineers, lay people and even the national governments seek to reflect history with the inclusion of modernity, meaning modern buildings with elements of tradition as well as all the modern amenities sought by users. In an architectural sense much of the focus is on theory within the academy, while the actual development of a great deal of architecture is not produced by university trained architects. There are few better national examples than Japan and India as they seek through laws and standards as well as architectural artistic vision to reinvent the visions of the past with modern buildings that meet modern needs including infrastructural needs to express safety, convenience and ergonomics but do not deny regionalism.
The greatest challenge for both India and Japan in the modern world of architecture is to define what is regional and what is modern and make it fit in a global architectural vision, without framing a loss of national identity as a natural outgrowth. In both India and Japan the architectural industry including not just university trained architects relying heavily on theory and international trends but on lay designers who often make up the bulk of national designers and builders, struggle with the marriage of international views and standards in

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