Modern-Day Vaccine Development Raising Eyebrows Essay

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Introduction Vaccine development is an old and complicated process, often requires more than a decade to complete. The modern system of vaccine development, regulation and testing was developed during the 20th century. To engender a vaccine mediated immunization or protection has been a major challenge. Presently available vaccines work primarily through the induction of the antigen specific antibodies. The effectiveness of any vaccine is determined by the quality of the antibodies, as their work pattern and avidity. For a long term effect through vaccines, the antibodies should be persistent or generated immune memory cells should be capable of instantaneous response in case of any microbial exposure. Lot of new methods has emerged …show more content…

Another big achievement was the recognition of complete genome of Haemophilus influenza in 1995; which gave new directions to immunization. Vaccine Design and Development Development of vaccines includes two broad stages. First stage covers laboratory and animal Studies including recognition of appropriate antigens e.g. screening, creation of a vaccine concept, efficacy testing and manufacturing of the vaccine at good standards. This stage may last for 1-2 years and often some candidate vaccines cannot go beyond this stage due to the potential lack of immunity generation. After this, the next step includes clinical studies on human beings. First a small group of humans are tested with the vaccine, followed by a larger group, to assess the safety and extent of the immune response that vaccine can provoke. Successful trial phases are followed by an approval and licensing procedure. FDA approves the labeling of vaccine after satisfaction and inspection of the manufacturing unit. Vaccines work through interrupting with innate or adaptive immunity as well as humoral immunity. Immunity is a complex interplay of humoral and cellular immune factors, but the required amount of antibody for defense against a pathogen is an important contemplation in vaccine development 3, 4. Vaccines mediated protection Antibodies are specific vaccine-induced immune effectors that are produced by B lymphocytes, and have the capability to bind with toxin or a pathogen. Other latent

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