Modern Liberalism and Political Policies

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Modern Liberalism Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau’s political philosophies and theories each differ from one another’s, but these three philosophers have all staked their claims as to what man would be like, prior to the formation of the state. This is the State of Nature. Their notions on the social contract reflect their position on the political spectrum. These three philosophers also examine the purpose and function of the government to individuals of the state.
Modern liberalism is the philosophical standpoint for an increase in social progress. Jean Jacques Rousseau provides a compelling account of modern era liberalism through his advocation because of his notions on good government, his social contract, and
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Man will be unable to become corrupt and will live his life in ignorance.
Social Contract A social contract is an agreement, whether implicitly or explicit that defines the legitimacy, or lack thereof, of the authority of the state over it’s subjects. Thomas Hobbes’ state is one that is filled with constant fear. Fear of their enemies and those who will betray them. Through a social contract, individuals of the state are able to establish a civil society and achieve security for the purpose of self-preservation. The social contract is a surrender of an individual's rights and freedoms, but he must be willing to, for “when others are so too, as far forth as for peace and defence of himself he shall think it necessary, to lay down this right to all things” (LEVIATHAN 16). John Locke’s social contract differs from Thomas Hobbes’ social contract in the manner that Locke views human nature as peaceful, with no corruptive temptations. There was no constant fear. A key component to the establishment of a social contract in Locke’s state was for the protection of property from those who are feared. Individuals of the state surrendered the right to enforce the law of nature while preserving and maintaining order. For Jean Jacques Rousseau, the state of nature is good. Rousseau believes that individuals are better off in a state of nature than in a state with an establishment
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