Modern Middle East Research Paper

Decent Essays
The Modern Middle East
During the 15th and 16th centuries, The Ottoman Empire contained most of Southeastern Europe. The Ottoman period lasted for over 600 years, before being replaced by the Republic of Turkey and other Middle Eastern nations. Many of the leaders who emerged in these new nations formed after the downfall of the Ottoman Empire held similar beliefs in the importance of modernization. The efforts put forth by various leaders transformed the Middle East from the state in was in during the Ottoman period, to the modern Middle East.
Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the first president of the Republic of Turkey, held a strong conviction in the importance of modernization in Turkey. He believed that in order for the nation to improve and
…show more content…
Pahlavi names the country Iran, changing it from the previously named Persia. Reza Shah’s efforts at modernization included many plans of industries and infrastructure projects. He built roads, hospitals and schools; opening the first university. He called for the creation of the Trans-Iranian Railway. Because a lot of Iran’s power was in the hands of foreign nations, Reza Shah Pahlavi wanted to take control of Iran’s communications and foreign affairs. To do this, he ended one-sided agreements and treaties Iran had with foreign powers, making sure no one had special privileges. He wanted to make sure Iran was a separate nation, without foreign influence, but still wanted to create a democracy. Even though he didn’t want direct foreign influence, he still Westernized Iran; bringing radios, buses, cinemas, telephones, western clothing, etc. (“Reza Shah…show more content…
This tactic “failed when those two powers joined in 1941 to fight the Germans” (“Reza Shah Pahlavi”). During World War II, it is said that Pahlavi favored the Axis powers of Germany, Italy and Japan, rather than the Allied powers. The Allied powers were occupying Iranian land, and ended up forcing Reza Shah Pahlavi to abdicate, and give power to his own son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.
Gamal Abdel Nasser, the second president of Egypt, also made efforts to modernize his country. In 1952, Nasser led the military coup of King Farouk, and later became president. As president, he abolished monarchy. He put much needed land reforms into effect to improve Egypt. A minimum wage for agricultural workers was put into place. Land owners had to own less than 200 feddans of land, but fathers with more than 2 children could have up to 300 feddans. Three years was the minimum amount for land leases. Land was confiscated from royal family and sold to peasants. (Margold,
Get Access