Louis Henry Sullivan was the architect that created and promoted the paramount precept to 19th century architectural design, ‘form follows function.’ The idea behind the design philosophy was that, “structural and aesthetic considerations should be entirely subject to functionality it was met with both approval and scepticism.” (Boundless, 2017) Modern architecture is commonly defined by its simplification of form. Early modern architecture began in the 20th century, with attempts to integrate, “the principles underlying architectural design with rapid technological advancement and the modernization of society.” (Boundless, 2017)
Modernism Looking into the modern Architecture movement I found out that, Modernism is the single most important new style or philosophy of architecture and design of the 20th century, associated with an inquisitive approach to the function of buildings, a strictly balanced use of materials, a move open approach to the structural innovation and the dismissal of ornament. Modernism is also described to be rational movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, upcoming from large-scale and across-the-board expanding into the Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The term is frequently used to modernist movements at the turn of the 20th century, with efforts to restore the main values to emphasize on the architectural design with quick high-tech development and the reconstruction of the new society. It has also been called International Modern or International Style, after an exhibition of modernist architecture in America in 1932 by Philip Johnson. Modernism also encompasses Futurism,
The history of Architecture started long time ago. The nomadic were groups of people whom move from one place to another in order find shelter and food to survive. As they progress, their techniques to survive evolve. The need for a permanent shelter became vital for a better stability of the group. This is the time when the first structures that provided protection appeared. Post and lintel were the first forms of Architecture, that satisficed the basic needs. Architecture evolved to be more sophisticated and fulfill the people’s needs. Consequently, Architecture evolved throughout different periods such as: Ancient architecture, Romanesque, The medieval, Renaissance, Early modern, and the industrial age, Modernism and Contemporary
Post-modernism design was definitely not for the faint hearted, designs mainly focused on bright colours and unusual shapes. They were very experimental yet sometimes limited due to time costly processes. The movement began in architecture as a reaction against the modernistic movement. Postmodernism saw a rise during the decade of the nineteen-eighties, however, this expressive style was not only seen in interior design, but also in fashion and other art movements. Escapism and fantasy were a source of inspiration for avant-garde designer collections, a lot of Japanese designers became known in Western capitals for their inventive styles that explored into both volume and proportion. The elements translated from post-modern architecture were in the form of expressive shapes and interesting exterior façade colours. Whereas, contemporary designs follow a more mature and sleek finish, with works from architects such as Zaha Hadid. Alongside contemporary design comes sustainability and reducing carbon footprints, taking into consideration the traditional materials used to build them.
By analyzing various articles that provides various viewpoint on the phenomenon of Modernism and its relationship to modernist architectures during the 1920s and 1930s, linkages, similarities and differences between how each author define modern architecture can be observed. These varying viewpoints encourages not only the identification of ‘Traditional’ and ‘Art Deco’ movements but also the critical understanding of modern architecture’s evolution and its relation to the societal beliefs, authority, resource and function during the Interwar Period.
Anne Rorimer writes in the group reading text, Introduction, about the evolution of art. She notes the writings of Clement Greenberg and his ideas of modernism and its differences from postmodernism. Postmodernism is directly derived from abstract expressionism and shows the evolution from painting to sculpture. Simply, modernists say their paintings are about the paint used to create them, whereas postmodernist believe that paintings are about the painting themselves.
Architecture has undergone a rapid and revolutionary transformation in the modern era. Through the work of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, this essay attempts to chart the transition in architecture from nineteenth century Romanticism and Neoclassicism to High Modernism. Mies van der Rohe redefined architectural boundaries and emphasised the beauty of simple forms, the importance of functionality and the versatility of new materials such as glass, steel and marble. An analysis of the work of Philip Johnson reveals the development from High Modernism to Postmodernism, where playful and ironic decoration and humanist theories were reintroduced into what had
Modernism began at the end of the civil war and ended (at least on an intellectual level) when the USA dropped the first atomic bomb. Modernism, whether it has to do with visual art, music or literature, gets its meaning from the idea that truth derives from effort. If one looks at the Empire State Building, a modernist building, one can see that it starts about a block wide at its base and tapers to a spire at the very top. This spire is the culmination of tremendous effort, it is truth. Once humans realized that everything we had worked towards can be wiped out in an instant, something snapped and some began to think “what’s the point?”. That idea culminated with “Well, why even work hard for truth? Truth should be what is immediately evident.” That was the beginning of the Postmodernist movement. Postmodernism rejects the idea that any text or product or media is inherently more valuable than any other. Culture is a snake eating its own tail. Everything old is new again. Everything deserves to be viewed as art. Everything deserves an audience to consume it. With Modernism, you only get to truth, enlightenment and value through work. With Postmodernism, you don't have to do that at all. Everything is beautiful how it is. But if everything's beautiful, nothing's beautiful. And therein lies the snake eating its own tail. Postmodernism inevitably goes around in circles, but that does not have to be a bad thing.
Styles of architectural design are always changing. As time progresses, new advancements are being made to accommodate a mass society and create a utopian design that will provide for the best possible living standards. The main qualities expressed in modern buildings are how they strive to replicate the goals and ambitions of their architects and patrons in a way beneficial to society as a whole. Modernism is a term that was invented in response to the architectural movement starting around the early 20th century to explain the dramatic changes in both technology and society. It was mainly in response to the industrial revolution which created urban cities changing the way people lived and worked. Modern architecture began to experiment with more modern concepts with buildings adoption more of a machine aesthetic by adding industrially-produced materials. The grand theater Großes Schauspielhaus utilizes the style of modernism to create a building for the people incorporating new technologies to design a space befitting the changing attitudes of early 20th century German society.
Postmodernism embraces many ideas in respond to its previous art movement: Modernism. Modernism’s concept “From Follows Function” encourages designers to put simplicity, legibility as first priorities, reject personal traits, aim at “impersonal creativity” like Jan Tschichold has described (Fiell, 2003). Modernism began at the end of the 19th Century and was influenced by the new technologies and the industrialized world which was a
To fully appreciate the differences and similarities between Postmodernism and Modernism, it is required to understand exactly what they are. Modernism is the term we give to the accumulated creations and activities of designers in the early 20th century, who had the theory that traditional forms of literature, religion, social organization, and most of all, art and architecture, had become outdated in the new social, political, and economic environment of a fully industrialised world. One of the main characteristics of Modernism is self-consciousness, which typically caused exstensive experimentations of form and function. The creative process of generating work was also explored, forming new techniques in design. Modernism rejected all ideology of realism and prefers to reference and parody works of the past. Postmodernism, on the other hand, is a radical rejection of Modernist design. Taking place in the late 20th century, it is a movement in art, criticism, and architecture that disputes the majority of modernist tendencies. The Postmodernist analysis of society and culture lead to the expansion of critical theory and advanced the works of architecture, literature, and design. This entire re-evaluation of the western value system of popular culture, love, marriage, economy, that took place from the 1950s and 60s, leading to the peak of the Social Revolution in 1968, is commonly referred as Postmodernity which influenced postmodern thought, as opposed to the term
The phrase ‘postmodernism’ was used to depict a style in architecture in the early 1960’s, this style used components from the past architectural styles and combined them to create buildings. This term was coined and used by cultural and political theorist to express contemporary Western and global society, two of theorists which will be discussed is Fredric Jameson and Linda Hitcheon who have apposing views on the theory.
Let us begin with the history of Modernism and Postmodernism. Modernism is an array of cultural movements that includes art, architecture and design in the late 19th century. It started with artists who rebelled against the traditional teachings and wanted something radical, embracing the new social, political and economic aspects of the modern society. Artists such as Picasso, Monet and Pollock were painting in styles that has never been done before. Modernists believed that they could change the society and their way of life. It was bound to happen with culture and trend change in Western society after the World War I. However, it became very rigid and inflexible, becoming more and more irrelevant to the rapidly changing world. Postmodernism, as the name suggests, came after Modernism. Modernists spent much of the 20th century trying to forge a better world inspired by science and universal truths. “Less is more”, quoted by a famous German-American architect named Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, it was what every
Modernization in industries developed a modern architecture which enlarges the possibilities of building and construction. Large windows, freedom on ground floor plans, walls no longer bearing the load. It feels more like the free and flexible design then fixed and inflexible as it was before. The equation which makes modern architecture more unique was “form follows function” which was derived by Luis Sullivan which gives more realistic approach in architecture. His experiments in design give new direction to architecture, especially after WANG RIGH building. His disciple Frank Loyed Wright brought principles of his master and develop new forms to architecture. His plans threw aside all adherence to the traditional concept of balance and symmetry. Much more than this, the concept of organic architecture which influence can be seen in Germany too after all traditional 1910.modern architecture was more about perfect co-relation. Nothing is acceptable for building and decoration until it has any function or purpose. Modern architecture was founded on the observation of nature “FORM FOLLOW FUNCTION” which is a biological
Modernism is a concept in architecture adopted by many architects as a code of practice. The utmost important philosophy in architecture and design spanning the 20th century. It corresponds to a systematic approach to the fundamentals of architectural design. The theory that the design should primarily focus upon its intended function or purpose. Thus rejecting ornamentation or decorative detailing whilst embracing minimalism.These elements defined this ideology of ‘form follows function’ or ‘less is more’, resulting in a minimalistic design view defining the classification of modernism. The dominant movement in architecture and design of 20th century continuing as a style for institutional and corporate buildings into the 21st. Modernism also encompasses numerous movements, schools of design, and architectural styles, such as Futurism, Constructivism, De Stijl and Bauhaus.