An architect’s intention on how his or her design is to be viewed can be misconstrued in a variety of different ways. For example, dissecting the compositional and formal design of a building, with or without knowledge of the architect’s actual intent, is completely up to the interpretation of the person or persons researching or viewing the design. In my own research about the compositional and formal design of the Margaret Esherick House, designed by Louis Kahn, I have come to realize, with the help of scholarly resources, the direct intention of Louis Kahn’s design; in which this paper will come to analyze and explain. While compiling research about the Esherick house, I came across a very informative book, The Houses of Louis Kahn, written by George H. Marcus and William Whitaker. The Houses of Louis
The relationship between “form” and “function” had always been the core of Sullivan’s career. In his point of view, anything, whether it is organic or inorganic, could be deemed as the representation of its content and function, and every particular function has developed its own form. Sullivan explain this idea by illustrating oak tree in his Kindergarten Charts, he wrote, “generally speaking outer appearances resemble inner purposes. For instances, the form, oak tree, resembles and expresses the function or purpose, oak” (Sullivan, Kindergarten chats). In here, “form” could be understood as phenomenon of things, but not just the appearance. In his article, “The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered,” published in 1986, Louis Sullivan
By analyzing various articles that provides various viewpoint on the phenomenon of Modernism and its relationship to modernist architectures during the 1920s and 1930s, linkages, similarities and differences between how each author define modern architecture can be observed. These varying viewpoints encourages not only the identification of ‘Traditional’ and ‘Art Deco’ movements but also the critical understanding of modern architecture’s evolution and its relation to the societal beliefs, authority, resource and function during the Interwar Period.
Modernism began arguably in the early 20th century when the industrial revolution was reaching an ever increasing height. It was a time when man searched for a new look, a new way of doing, due to being ‘enlightened’. Man had come to know what was not yet realised before. This led to an inner struggle amongst artists, designers and most dramatically influential: architects; to search for and establish a new way of doing, due to being enlightened. Man had come to know what was not yet realised
Though the start of the modernisation may trace back to the beginning of Industrial Revolution. “Modernism in the design world did not exist in a fully developed form, until well after First World War.” (Wilk, 2006) Causing the great loss of lives and other countless damage to the world, it reshaped many people’s way of thinking the world. With the inspiration of early avant-garde movement, the modernism began to emerge advocating an utopian future and shared certain core principles by various styles of modernists: rejecting the past and applied ornament; forms follow function, a preference for
The main difference between these two schools is that the architects point of view to any design as a means of communication (Chan, 1997). Modern architecture, for example, focus on the aesthetics of architectural language, while post-modernity adjust in constant effort to achieve what is more than unity and focus on the traditional concepts, therefore both schools are in competition with each other. Second basic principle of modern school is the production beauty by basic technology (Chan, 1997), and this led to a contradiction on the post-modernism architects being attempted to use primitive technology. Their particular case is to access and change the impact of the traditional architecture through all people. Therefore, to achieve this goal they have addressed the issues of beauty and technology within the general concept of the design.
“Modernism was the answer to the world’s woes.” (Heller, 2012). In a way, this was true. The modernism movement in graphic design started after World War 1, influencing the world after a time of war and hardship - just when it was vulnerable and needed it most. Modern artists of the time had the opinion that art and design should echo life in the consitutional revolution and communicate with a modern audience through deeper ideas and values in their design and art works. The Modernist movement broke away from traditions in thinking, society and art. A new era was starting. The Modernism movement eventually developed into two parts - the “high” modernism and the “low” modernism. High modernism represents the intellectuals and low modernism was based to the everyday person. Low modernism also focused on mass production and accesibility whereas high modernism focused on the ideas and values they were trying to communicate and influence through their work. The movement was moving away from traditional thinking in art and society, giving a new beginning to the world of design. This was because design was needed to relate to the every day audience as well as having a deeper meaning, so two streams were created. Modernism ignored the previous tendency to only use realism in art, deeming it unnecessary and irrelevant. In fine arts high modernism was mostly geometrical abstraction and expressionism whilst low is the practical set of guides for new influences on society. But which
The old saying, “form follows function”, implies that the shape of a building or object should be primarily based on its intended function or purpose. This principle, which I find intriguing and was introduced to me during my undergraduate architecture study, was propounded by Louis Henry Sullivan, an American Architect who is also referred to as the "father of skyscrapers" and "father of modernism". Hence, I have developed a keen interest in the science, technology, construction, and functionality of sophisticated edifices. Also, I envision myself being globally competitive, and as a professional asset to my home country and beyond. These has led to a deep desire to further my education and pursue a Master of Architecture program and I believe the Bowling Green State University (BGSU) is the right academic environment in which to do so. The quality education offered by the outstanding faculty as well as the effort at promoting innovative concepts, cross-cultural diversity, and great alumni networks, are undeniable perks obtainable at Bowling Green State University. Studying at the Bowling Green State University will provide the opportunity that would expose me to new innovations and concepts, nurture and enhance my skills, as well as make me a competent and seasoned architect that clients can rely on.
To fully appreciate the differences and similarities between Postmodernism and Modernism, it is required to understand exactly what they are. Modernism is the term we give to the accumulated creations and activities of designers in the early 20th century, who had the theory that traditional forms of literature, religion, social organization, and most of all, art and architecture, had become outdated in the new social, political, and economic environment of a fully industrialised world. One of the main characteristics of Modernism is self-consciousness, which typically caused exstensive experimentations of form and function. The creative process of generating work was also explored, forming new techniques in design. Modernism rejected all ideology of realism and prefers to reference and parody works of the past. Postmodernism, on the other hand, is a radical rejection of Modernist design. Taking place in the late 20th century, it is a movement in art, criticism, and architecture that disputes the majority of modernist tendencies. The Postmodernist analysis of society and culture lead to the expansion of critical theory and advanced the works of architecture, literature, and design. This entire re-evaluation of the western value system of popular culture, love, marriage, economy, that took place from the 1950s and 60s, leading to the peak of the Social Revolution in 1968, is commonly referred as Postmodernity which influenced postmodern thought, as opposed to the term
As science was evolving, art and architecture were too forming new ideas and styles. Starting with Einstein, Newton, and Heisenberg- in regard to quantum physics and leaping into architectural advances, it is agreed that this was a revolutionary time for all who lived in this era. That being said, Cubism, Futurism, and Fauvism are important styles in modernistic art. Whether it is literature, poetry, song, or dance, these principles helped to shape the future and individual approach to create our own perspective. The abstract styles discussed, paved the way for Nonobjective art to make its mark on humanity and to make us feel and see uniquely. Not to mention, architecture and the International style that later developed, teaching us modern design. The international style gave us unique structures, distinctly showcasing new synthetic materials, floor plans, and roofs. As one can see, modernistic art provides just as an important part of our everyday life as
After the rehashing auxiliary module turned into the arrangement, there was no longer an issue to fathom. Mies and his adherents made lovely structures that could be acknowledged as masterpieces; imitators could do close to nothing yet rehash the technique. By the 1960s, two patterns had turned out to be clear: designers were starting to depend on improving components and recorded inferences to shift the recipe and use of the mark window ornament divider was turning into a simple technique for refreshing more established structures. Postmodernism would convey a differing qualities to skyscraper generation that, all things considered, would reinvigorate the work of the 1950s. The incongruity of the amusing postmodern style is that its push to legitimize both well known and chronicled references regularly brought about an absence of any genuine significance. One case of a 1960s skyscraper that stood separated from its companions is the Ford Foundation Building (1967) in New York City, composed by the successor firm to Eero Saarinen- - Kevin Roche, John Dinkeloo Associates. The Ford Foundation building is commended in design history overviews for its thoughtful and motivating utilization of inside space to mitigate the force of the run of the mill corporate office building. The greater part of the workplaces investigate an inside chamber that ascents the full tallness of the building, lessening important corporate space however immeasurably enhancing the workplace. In an AIA Journal study of the nation's best structures professionals, faultfinders and students of history designated the Ford Foundation eleven times, positioning it among the main ten most huge structures composed in the last two hundred years. The skyscraper has always modified the urban scene. In the
Christopher Crouch wrote “Modernism in Art, Design and Architecture” in 1999, in order to acquaint his audience to the concepts of Modernism and the Post-Modern evolution, through a concise and captivating argument, which effectively ties to the advancement of contemporary visual culture, and to the socio-political conditions in which it is composed of. Crouch investigates the diverse ways in which visual culture emulates its conceptual and physical provenance in elite, mass, and cultural practices.
Negotiation were undertaken with no fewer than six different landowners to acquire a parcel of land on the lakefront on the very edge of the city centre. The Auditorium building project was entrusted to Dankmar Alder [Hugh Morrison, Louis Sullivan,-Prophet of Modern Architecture (New York: The Museum of Modern Art and W.W. Norton Company, Inc., 1935),pp. 283-293.] and Louis Sullivan. Their firm had dedicative to the Chicago landscape with many high-profile projects. They seek for unique solution to the requirement of every building project by using what they had developed rather than following the traditional design styles. Adler always keep the long client list to the firm, bring forth new idea engineering, especially acoustic. In another side, Sullivan was good in ornament and he brought out the expressive façade designs that contain natural form and his famous formula in the history of modern architecture “Form follows Function.” [Louis H. Sullivan,” The Autobiography Of An Idea” Chapter XIII The Garden City
The Modernist Period was first a reaction against the previous Victorian culture. Intellectuals and artists of the 20th century believed that the previous era’s way of doing things was a cultural dead end and they wanted to break away from traditions.
A lot has happened in architecture since Louis Kahn death in 1974, some of it are really good, some are dreadful and we have different preferences about which is which. However, Kahn’s work look better than ever on its own terms. Better in its solidity and gravity. He was an architect of beautiful contradictions and one of the few to create architectural elements out of scale with the human figure. His buildings are very elegantly designed but are constructed of basic, often crude materials. Consisting of