Modernization Process in Turkey& Afghanistan • Introduction: Modernization theory is a

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Modernization Process in Turkey& Afghanistan • Introduction: Modernization theory is a unilinear process in which stated that every society goes through the same process of modernization (Smelser, 1988, p.2). The idea of modernization came in Turkey while Mustafa Kemal Atatürk came into power after the world war one by defeating Ottoman Empire through Young Turks. Ottoman Empire was ruling Turkey for more than five decades; at first they were ruling Turkey through absolute monarchy latter they change it to constitutional monarchy. It was one of the strongest powers on that time the power was decentralized on the hand of Ottoman Empire; large portion of development took place which lay out the foundation or basis for process of…show more content…
He brought many reform by the help of Tarzi who was an Islam reformist and he was in exiled in Ottoman Empire for 20 years and he educated there. Amanullah brought political reform, social reform, economic reform and education reforms for instance, he established three more school to provide educational opportunities for people. His objective of new afghan educational system was to cultivate an enlightened intellectual class in Afghanistan and to provide a group of able administrators for the monarchy. Amanulah Khan was an independence fighter; he wanted to modernize Afghanistan from top-down approach (Barfield, 2010, p. 182). Therefore, this paper use the modernization theories of Charles Tilly war making and state making, Ibn Khaldun view how group feeling impact in achieving modernization, Rostow ‘s stage of economic growth and Smelser ‘s economic development , for comparing the process of modernization in Turkey and Afghanistan. • Economic Structure : According to Smelser it is the economy which paves the road for culture and social changes. He believes that there is four major processes that a country goes through for achieving economic development first from simple to sophisticated technology, second change from subsistence farming to cash corps, third change from animal and human power to industrialization and finally an increasingly Urban based population ( Smelser, 1988, p. 22). The
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