Modulating Gene Expression with Multiple Intermediate Steps

1514 WordsFeb 24, 20186 Pages
Gene expression can be modulated by multiple intermediate steps, including transcription, post-transcriptional modifications, RNA splicing, translation, and post-translational modifications; transcription being the first step and a key mechanism for regulating gene expression. Transcriptional control is mediated through promoters and regulatory elements, which are all essential for spatiotemporally correct gene expression. Genome organization has been undoubtedly linked with regulation of gene expression through global analyses of mammalian genomes. Previous hypotheses suggested that genome is arranged as independently regulated chromosomal domains flanked by boundary elements (i.e. insulators). This might be true in compact genomes of organisms such as yeasts (e.g. S. cerevisiae 12.1 Mb), where an uninterrupted genomic segment (i.e. regulatory expression unit) is formed comprising of a particular gene and its regulatory elements. Nevertheless, in more complex genomes such as those of humans (H. sapiens 3.2 Gb) and mouse (M. musculus 2.7 Gb) the situation is substantially more complex, where genes and their regulatory elements can be dispersed over many hundreds of kilobases. These observations concur with current hypotheses, where cis-regulatory elements including Locus Control Regions (LCRs), enhancers, silencers, and insulators, may be dispersed over tens to thousands of kilobases. Furthermore, cis-regulatory elements of one gene are commonly embedded within a neighbour

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