Module 2 Dttls Essay

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This essay will endeavour to identify the main theories and principles of learning and communication. Examining how to plan and apply them in the classroom to enable inclusive learning and evaluating one’s own strengths in relation to the application of the principles and theories of learning and communication to identify any personal development needs.
What is learning? Reece, Walker (1999) state learning is about change, whether it is purposeful or accidental it means understanding something new or developing a new skill, maintaining learning is a relatively permanent change. Many would argue the primary purpose of the teacher is to ensure learning occurs. It therefore seems important that teachers have an understanding how the
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Palardy (1991) suggests behaviour modification techniques ignore the causes of behaviour. Minton (2005) argues behaviourism fails to take into consideration motivation and attitudinal change, arguing it is largely robotic if students are not taught to think for themselves as they will not know how to apply the knowledge outside their field of tuition.

The later Neo behaviourism theorists, extended the stimulus and response theory and gave extrinsic outside motivators a key role and focused on voluntary rather the involuntary behaviour. Skinner (1968) used the famous rat in a box experiments to identify that learning is accelerated by reinforcement. He found that the most important stimulus is not an antecedent (that that follows a response) but a consequence (that that triggers it). Consequences are most likely to influence future behaviour. Learning is how voluntary behaviour is strengthen or weakened by antecedents and consequences therefore learners are conditioned by a process known as operant conditioning. Skinner (1968) believed a teacher can shape learner behaviour to get the outcome they desire. Tolman (1949) believed we can understand behaviour by examining an entire sequence of varied activities. He believed learning fits into a pattern and reinforcement is not necessary for learning to take place, arguing particular behaviour leads to particular consequences therefore teachers must consider what leads to what?

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