Round seeds (R) are dominant to wrinkled seeds (r), and yellow seeds (Y) are dominant
The basic plant life cycle with alternation of generations is modified in angiosperms by the change of haploid (n) and diploid (2n) generations, which take turns making each other.
Figure 1 Gel Electrophoresis for Replication Taster PTC. The gel is composed of an ethidium bromide stained 3% agarose gel demonstrating DNA fragments which were a depiction of PCR amplification. The agarose gel contains nine loading samples, including from left to right, the MW marker lane 1 precision mol mass standard, lane 2 TB undigested PTC (5µl of DNA, 5µl of master mix P, and 2.5µl of loading dye), lane 3 TB digested PTC (5µl of DNA, 5µl of master mix P, 2µl Fnu4HI, and 3µl of loading dye), lane 4 TB A(L)DH G (10µl DNA, 10µl master mix G, and 5µl loading dye), lane 5 TB A(L)DH A (10µl DNA, 10µl master mix A, and 5µl loading dye), lane 6 MG undigested PTC (5µl of DNA, 5µl of master mix P, and 2.5µl of loading dye), lane 7 MG digested PTC (5µl of DNA, 5µl of master mix P, 2µl Fnu4HI, and 3µl of loading dye), lane 8 MG A(L)DH G (10µl DNA, 10µl master mix G, and 5µl loading dye), lane 9 MG A(L)DH A (10µl DNA, 10µl master mix A, and 5µl loading dye).
Do you ever wonder why your hair is the color that it is? Or where you got your height? Well this is all dependent on your genes. The genes that you have were passed onto you from your parents. Geneticists the people who study our genes and heredity. They do extensive research and study how genes work and how they are built. Geneticist don’t just learn about humans, depending on what part of the field they are working in they may also learn about plants and animals. All of the data that they collect from research they use to find new medicines and cures for all different kinds of diseases. Like I said they also work with plants and animals. They work with plants by trying to change the genetic makeup of crops to help improve the
Plant tissue culture alludes to the In vitro culture of plants from plant parts (tissues, organs, developing lives, single cells, protoplasts, and so forth.) on supplement media under aseptic conditions (Altman, 2000). In vitro cultures are presently being utilized as apparatuses for the investigation of different essential issues in plant sciences. It is presently conceivable to engender all plants of financial significance in vast numbers by tissue
The garden bean and castor bean are considered to be epigeous because during germination the cotyledons are carried above ground level by the extending hypocotyl. In both bean seedlings, the extended hypocotyl shapes into a hook, but eventually straightens out pulling the cotyledon above the ground. In contrast to the garden and castor bean, the germination process of the pea is considered to be hypogeous. In this process, the cotyledons remain under the surface and the hypocotyl doesn’t extend. During hypogeous germination of the pea seedling, the epicotyl extends and forms a hook, which eventually lifts the plumule from underground as it straightens out.
This data shows a strange outcome, in the hypothesis; it says that “If acid is introduced to the seed during germination, then the roots will not grow as long as the seeds that are given water”. This statement proves to be untrue, because the roots grew longer with stronger acid than weaker acid, and in some, cases, grew better with strong acid than it did in water. This may be true because of the acid growth theory. The acid growth theory states that auxins cause the elongation of stem cells by promoting wall loosening. It was determined that this wall loosening is caused by hydrogen ions. This idea and subsequent supporting data gave rise to the acid growth theory, which states that when exposed to auxins, susceptible cells excrete protons into the wall at an enhanced rate, which in turn decreases the pH in the wall. The lowered wall pH then activates the wall loosening process which is essentially doing the same thing as the auxin hormone.
Therefore, the primers and PCR products for each allele can differ. The Curry Leaf does not possess any sequences corresponding to the primers used in this experiment as it did into produce gel results; therefore, none of the investigated alleles are present in curry leaf trees. However, no clear determination was made regarding promoter presence. Curry leaf trees may simply possess a different allele that required different primers for DNA isolation and amplification to occur. This allele may still possess a promoter. The allele the curry leaf has must be identified and compared to the gene sequence of a plant with the same allele but is known not to express red coloring. If the curry leaf possesses a longer sequence compared to this plant, it may contain a promoter because it has the extra base pairs of a promoter sequence preceding a
Gibberellin Acid is a plant hormone that can affect plant growth by manipulating the cell division, stem elongation, and even mobilizes food resources within the endosperm to increase seed germination (Wiathrop, 1998). This experiment took place to test the factor of whether or not gibberellin could allow a seed to germinate and grow in the absence of light. Plants were distributed five drops of gibberellin and then placed in the cabinet for a total of three weeks. Each week, we recorded the growth of each plant. As a result of the three weeks, only one of the two hormone-induced plants successfully sprouted to a total of 16.2 centimeters. The other hormone-induced seed showed germination however, resulted to zero vertical growth,
By comparing the two tables, it can be seen that the only difference in GUS activity is observed in the categories “leaves infiltrated with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas” and “leaves treated with flg22.” Specifically, the pFLS2noWbox::GUS construct had decreased GUS activity in these two categories. Pseudomonas and flg22 are important for defense against pathogens. This suggests that WRKY transcription factors are important for regulating FLS2 expression of immune responses. Furthermore, this emphasizes the idea that the binding of different cis-elements can drive differential expression of the FLS2 gene. In addition, the WRKY transcription factors do not affect FLS2 gene expression in every plant tissue, cell or treatment. This suggests that the WRKY transcription factors are not necessary for the general expression of FLS2; however, they do play an important role in pathogen defense
The synthetic auxin found in SUPERthrive, indole-3-bytric acid, may be a key player in the benefits of SUPERthrive, if there are any. For example, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the main auxin in higher plants, has been found to have positive effects on plant growth and development. Auxin is able to stimulate differential growth, specifically in response to gravity or light stimuli. Another important aspect of auxin is its ability to detect developmental defects caused by auxin deficiency. With SUPERthrive having indole-3-bytric acid as one of its main ingredients, there should be some benefits from its use (Zhao, 2010). The increased growth seen in the SUPERthrive zinnias may have been due to the additive of auxins in the product.
As seen from the given figure, the paper discovered that a single promoter (pFLS2) differentially drove gene expression in response to different stimuli using transcription fusion of pFLS2 with GUS. Specifically, they discovered that in the control treatment, pFLS2 was solely visible in root late elongation. While incubation with flg22 led to an increase Pfls2 activity in the root tip extending to the cortical cells, salylic acid (SA) showed strong blue staining in the vasculature, next H2O2 or the ethylene precursor ACC provoked an almost identical promoter activity in the root cap, root meristem and root epidermal cells, also finding pFLS2 is auxin responsive. Revealing that flg22, SA, H2O2 and ethylene all induce the expression of activity of the pFLS2 but the responses are specific to different tissue layers in the root. Overall proving evidence that a single promoter can drive expression to different tissues because of cis-regulatory elements, presenting observations showing that FLS2 is subject to positive regulation between receptor
Cytokinins move up the plant through the xylem. Whereas, auxins move down the plant. Cytokinins works with Auxin to control cell differentiation. The many functions of cytokinins include stimulation of germination, promote cell division, and plant growth. This hormone helps result in plant growth because they are able to release buds from apical dominance. Essentially, if a plant contains more cytokinins that means more mitosis is occurring and if more mitosis is occurring that means more cells are being produced and if more cells are being produced that means the plants
Making the onion tip root cell slide was successful. Our results supported the hypothesis because we saw cells in the onion root tip in prophase, metaphase, and anaphase. As we went up in power objectives, each phase of the cell became more definitive. The cell root was a great indicator of the structures of the different cycles of the cell. This is important because we will be prepared for future labs working with the microscopes and can now adjust it for the best view of the slide. We practiced working with the compound light microscopes and different phases of the cell cycle. Onion root tips are useful to observe mitosis because the cells are frequently diving as the root grows. So when we stained the cell, we caught many cells in different phases. The significance of this lab was to better understand the process and stages of mitosis and meiosis and compare and contrast the mitotic process in plants and animals. We grasped the concepts of what the chromosomes look like, and what they look like in each step of the processes. Having read much about mitosis and meiosis, seeing these cells was the real application of describing and understanding the stages.