Monitoring And Controlling Blood Glucose Levels

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Worldwide, diabetes is a rapidly growing problem that is managed at the individual level by monitoring and controlling blood glucose levels to minimize the negative effects of the disease. Because of limitations in diagnostic methods, significant research efforts are focused on developing improved methods to measure glucose. Nanotechnology has impacted these efforts by increasing the surface area of sensors, improving the catalytic properties of electrodes and providing nanoscale sensors. Herein, we discuss the developments in the past several years on both nanosensors that directly measure glucose as well as nanomaterials that improve glucose sensor function.
Diabetes is a rapidly growing problem, currently affecting 300 million people worldwide . and its incidence is expected to increase rapidly in the coming decades[0]. Diabetes can lead to complications such as serious as lower-limb amputations, blindness, and cardiovascular disease [1].Continuous and accurate monitoring of patient blood glucose levels is critical for diagnosis and management of the disease.
In order to attain optimal control, patients must monitor their blood glucose levels. Currently, this requires a patient to obtain a small sample of blood, usually via a finger prick. Blood is placed onto a sensor test strip that is then read by a handheld electronic reader, which reports the blood glucose concentration. These sensors are based on electrochemical enzymatic measurements (Figure 1) with screen printed
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