Monoclonal Antibody ( Magic Bullets ) : A Promising Treatment For Cancer

1659 WordsFeb 9, 20177 Pages
MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY (“MAGIC BULLETS”) - A PROMISING TREATMENT FOR CANCER ANURIMA MODI TECHNO INDIA UNIVERSITY, KOLKATA-700091 REVIEW PAPER ABSTRACT Background: Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are an old immunological tool in the field of biotechnology, immunology, biochemistry and applied biology. The use of monoclonal antibodies for cancer therapy is one of the most versatile, powerful and important strategies in the treatment of cancer. Over a past couple of years, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved more than a dozen mAb’s to treat certain cancers (Brain cancer, Breast cancer ,Chronic lymphocytic leukemia, Colorectal cancer, Head and neck cancers, Hodgkin 's lymphoma, Lung cancer, Melanoma, Non-Hodgkin 's lymphoma,…show more content…
In the early stage of a drug discovery process, researchers may be faced with little or no structure activity relationship (SAR) information. The process by which a new drug is brought to market stage is referred to by a number of names most commonly as the development chain or “pipeline” and consists of a number of distinct stages. To design a rational drug, we must firstly find out which proteins can be the drug targets in pathogenesis. MECHANISM OF ACTION Monoclonal antibodies achieve their therapeutic effect through various mechanisms. They can have direct effects in producing apoptosis or programmed cell death. They can block growth factor receptors, effectively arresting proliferation of tumor cells. In cells that express monoclonal antibodies, they can bring about anti-idiotype antibody formation. Indirect effects include recruiting cells that have cytotoxicity, such as monocytes and macrophages. This type of antibody-mediated cell kill is called antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Monoclonal antibodies also bind complement, leading to direct cell toxicity, known as complement dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Antibody therapy can be used in a variety of ways to treat cancer. As described above, they may act through ADCC or CDC. An alternative approach is to conjugate the monoclonal antibody to a toxin, a cytotoxic agent, or a radioisotope. With

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