Assess the extent to which primary rather than secondary impacts are the more serious effects arising from volcanic eruptions. (30 marks)
Have you ever been near a volcano when it erupted? Most of us haven't, but if you're unlucky enough, you just might have. Many people think it would be cool, but it is indeed not. In fact, the people of Pompeii were very unlucky when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 AD. Nearly two-thousand people died. Although that eruption was very similar to the 1980 eruption of Saint Helens, it was also very different.
Volcanos are beautiful yet discursive. They may have different effects on towns but some are similar, and some are different. Some may have an effect on both people and cities and the people's mindsets may change on their beloved homes.
In the early 1900s St.Pierre on the French Caribbean island of Martinique was famous tourist destination.”It was known as the Paris of the west Indies”, and home to more than 20,000 people,Mount Pelee sits about 4 miles from St Pierre.On May 8, 1902 the volcano erupted. Sending a volcanic surge directly at St.pierre's at a rate of 420 miles per hour.Killing 30,000 people in its wake.National National Geographic News”Deadliest volcano of the 20th century, 100 years later””molly pell and channo wOodage for National Geographic News, 5-8-2”
A hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat tolife, health, property or environment. The level of hazard posed by different volcanoes can very greatly, from a weak eruption with minimal impact that causes little damage, to a voilent and life threatening explosion. Most of the sixty-plus volcanoes that erupt each year are low risk, however a combination of factors can cause a volcano to be a serious hazard. The factors causing these variations will be explained in this essay.
11. The Kilauea Volcano eruption was one of the largest and the most destructive for its time, “As the lava field spread, cooled and spread again over the next three years it destroyed many homes and the Visitor Center…” (http://www.livescience.com/27622-kilauea.html) Familys and companys had no were to go, jusst like the the people in the Dust Bowl at the
● This was the first time this type of volcano eruption was actually witnessed and
The Capulin Volcano interestingly enough, is apart of what's known as the Raton-Clayton volcanic field (RCVF), a collected scattering of other volcano's that stretch well over 7,000 square miles. Located in Northeastern New Mexico, the Capulin lies dormante, although some believe extinct, since it's last volcanic activity more than 60,000 years ago. Capulin underwent a rather large eruption that formed its current 1000ft cinder cone shape, which gave way to "a number of small lava flows and cinder eruptions [that] paved over the mound, steepening it's slopes"(NASA, 2016). The base was inital made from the hot ash, cinder, and rock debris of the eruption, and the lava flows themselves were "basalt, deriving from the melting of the mantle" (Sayre and Ort, 2011). Due to
that the volcano must be classified as dormant rather than extinct. Moreover, the unexpected 1995 eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano on Montserrat, situated in the same volcanic arc, demonstrates that continuous awareness of the associated hazards is required.
Data collection and sources; the data used in this study comes from Azzalin and Bowman(1990). It includes a data frame with 272 observations on 2 variables that is eruption time and waiting time. The data is heavily rounded times originally in seconds.
Historic Eruptions: 1902 Destroyed the whole village of St. Pierre. On may fifth a lahar reaching 100 km per hour came down mount Pelée and killed 2 dozen people. Also material spilled into the ocean and caused a 3 meter high tsunami the “inundated” St. Pierre. The most devastating thing was that snakes and insects (that some where venomous) came down the volcano and into the village. Soldiers lined up on the streets to shoot the snakes but they weren’t able to save the city. There’s debate about exactly what happened on May 8 — Ascension Day — but one thing is certain: In the course of a few short minutes, an infernal blast of hot gas and volcanic debris obliterated
The Mount Pinatubo eruption in 1991 is an example of a tectonic hazard. The response to this hazard will be different to the response in Iceland to the Mount Pelee eruption. The human responses to tectonic hazards are affected by several different factors: the income level of the location, the frequency, the magnitude, the population density of the area the hazard takes place and the type of hazard itself. This report is going to examine a range of tectonic hazards and the human responses to them. A response could be the level of planning for such hazard, aid after the disaster, or the relief given or purely doing
The Eyjafjallajökull Volcano affects thousands of people’s lives in Iceland, and around the world. The Eyjafjallajökull volcano is still active today and has a possibility of future eruptions, The famous volcano is commonly considered a stratovolcano and is seismically monitored. The name Eyjafjallajökull in Icelandic means “Island-mountains glacier.” Like every volcano Eyjafjallajökull affects many people, has a long history and has many hazards.
Volcanic eruptions are very problematic to predict despite how much technology has advanced over the generations in terms of magnitude and the impacts that it has had on people throughout history. An eruption is defined as “The ejection of molten rock, steam, etc., as from a volcano or geyser” (Dictionary.com, 2016). There are many reasons as to why volcanic eruptions are so difficult to predict and there are many examples of volcanoes down the ages that have impacted humans tremendously and posed potential risks to people when prediction was not able to influence an evacuation or contribute to saving lives. The size of the eruption is a factor that; when not predicted can intensify the impacts of an eruption enormously and result in a disaster.
The focus of this research paper is on Mount Vesuvius is two of its most deadly eruptions in 79 A.D. and 1631 that destroyed the ancient cities of Pompeii and nearby Herculaneum forcing the citizens to flee to the Bay of Naples to escape the ash falls and its pyroclastic flows. Both eruptions left the populations