Your spine is made up of 24 vertebrae, seven cervical, twelve thoracic and five lumbar. Cervical is the neck region, the thoracic region is the upper back and the thoracic is in the lower back, added onto the spine is your sacrum and your coccyx. The vertebra is the protection and support system for the spinal cord. The spine gives stability, gives moment in all direction and still returns back to normal shape, gives a place for attachment for flexible bands and elastic cords, is a shock absorber. An exaggerated curve in the thoracic region is referred to as kyphosis, and one in the lumbar region to as a kyphosis, and one in the lumbar region is referred to as a lordosis. Kyphosis curves have a backward convexity. Lordotic curves have a forward convex curve. A lateral deviation of the spine is called scoliosis.1
The spine is one of the most important structures in the human body. The spine is located in the dorsal cavity and consists of 24 bones, called vertebrae. These vertebrae play a crucial role in protected the body’s command center, the spinal cord. But what happens when a disorder prevents
The pain arrangements and neurological deficiencies are mainly decided by the area of the herniated disc. The cervical spine is established around the vertebrae, or the 7 pile of bony building blocks in the spine. They are categorized from top to bottom, namely C1 through C7. The nerve that is afflicted by the herniation of the cervical disc is the one leaving the spine at that level, so around the C5-C6 level, it is the C6 nerve root that is of main
Lumbar Vertebral Fracture The Vertebral column is an amazing part of the human body. It is made up of many different pieces that all fit together to make something that keeps the body up right, allows movement, supports weight and protects the spinal cord. There are four different segments of the spinal cord. One of those segments is called the lumbar region. The lumbar region consists of 5 vertebrae that make up the lower back (Lippert, 2011). The lumbar region supports most of the body weight and allows movement. People often do not realize how important the vertebral column is until it is already injured. Injury to the lumbar region can be caused from a vertebral fracture and can be very painful to ones lower back.
The skeletal system is a very essential part of the body, without it would be impossible to do many things even moving. The skeletal is composed of bones, ligaments, cartilage, tendons, and other tissues. The skeleton is separated into two regions, the axial skeleton which forms the supporting axis of
C1 (Atlas) and C2 (Axis) are unique; C1 has no vertebral body and C2 has a distinct structure called the odontoid process, which extends up to C1. Thoracic vertebrae progress in size and appearance as it goes from the cervical to lumbar region. An important feature of the thoracic vertebrae is that they have demifacets for rib articulation. Lumbar vertebrae are the inferior most in the vertebral column. Therefore they are the largest and strongest to sustain most of the body weight. Thoracic and lumbar intervertebral foramen is located 90° from the midsagittal plane, whereas it is 45° in cervical
(2009) suggested that stress on the pars interarticularis during infancy, early adulthood may be a reason for the development of dysplasia. Moreover, the ossification during the embryological state may not progress uniformly or there appears to be a transition between dense trabecular bone in the PI and the inferior articulating facet and less dense trabecular bone at the base of the pedicle only in the lower segments. Such abnormalities in tissue density may persist into childhood leading to a potential area of weakness.
Endochondral ossification, this type of bone development involves cartilage models, which are then replaced with bony tissue. This takes place at the embryonic stages; 8 weeks into development, condroblast secret cartilaginous matrix which will from the hyaline cartilage for bone development. The lacunae trap the condrablast and this is all surrounded by the perichondrium.
This is a disease characterised by low bone mass leading to an increased occurrence of fractures with minimal stress. Adolescence is the critical time for bone mineral accretion as more than half of the bone calcium in an individual is normally laid down during these years, with bone development continuing into the next decade of life. Failure to attain sufficient bone density during the adolescent years results in osteopenia which refers to a bone density of below the average for young adults and is a risk factor for osteoporosis (Mandy G. Katz, 2000).
The Vertebral column is made up of a series of approximately 33 different small bones. It’s the main structure of the skeleton. (1)The cervical spine is made up of seven different vertebrae bones and begins at the base of skull and carries on through down to the thoracic spine. The vertebrae protect their segment of the spinal cord. This causes the spinal cord not to get damaged by any sort of impact to the cervical spine. (2) The thoracic and lumbar vertebrae bones in the vertebral column are very similar bones that serve different purposes to each other. The lumbar spine has a lot more range of movement whereas the thoracic spine doesn’t have a lot of movement. The lumbar spine allows a lot more flexion and extension movement but limits the
Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is one of the most common orthopedic disorders.It is when there is an abnormal curve in the spine that appeares in adolescents. When this happens the spine grows and slightly curves side to side looking like an elongated “c” or “s” shape(see picture #1). The most common time of this happening is when adolescents go through a growth spurt or when they grow rapidly. Scientists do not know why severe adolescent idiopathic scoliosis develops in girls more than boys, however the mild cases are equally represented in both boys and girls.
The patient received comprehensive adjustments to sections of vertebral and occipital subluxations. The patient made continuous advances throughout the care, the symptomatic primary reaction to care was optimistic. Subluxation appears to be associated with cervical trauma.
Prior to the physical examination and to accurately identify clinical findings, the patient should don a gown, if culturally permitted, to easily view the anatomical landmarks. To avoid excessive repositioning and client discomfort, the examiner would be most successful by positioning the patient in a standing position initially, followed by sitting, supine, and prone positioning. While in the standing position, the examiner would assess posture, signs of scoliosis, hyperlordosis and kyphosis. Scoliosis is assessed by requesting the patient to bend forward 90 degrees. Asymmetric rib deformity is indicative of a positive finding. The examiner may also identify lateral curvature of the spine accompanied by vertebral rotation in the thoracic or lumbar region. The most common finding with vertebral involvement is right thoracic scoliosis (Hay, 2014). Restrictions in movement are determined by passively and actively flexing, extending, rotating and laterally bending the spine. By instructing the patient to stand on one leg, allows for spinal expansion and assesses for pain. Spondylolysis (interarticularis fractures) is a positive finding. The clinician would then examine the patient in a seated position. This marks a prime opportunity to check for muscle strength, deep tendon reflexes and sensation. Motor strength tests help determine the degree of neurologic deficit. Sensation and
Introduction Everyone’s spine has natural curve which round our shoulders and make our lower back curve slightly inward (Common Scoliosis Questions). Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine (Taylor, 2011, p394). Scoliosis can also be defined as a lateral (towards the inside) curvature of the spine with increased convexity (the quality or state of being curved outward) on the side that is curve (Taylor, 2011, p601). There are several less common types of scoliosis, but the four major different types of scoliosis are congenital scoliosis, early onset scoliosis, idiopathic scoliosis, and neuromuscular scoliosis. The spinal curves cannot be corrected simply by learning to stand up straight like poor posture.
Scoliosis is a three-dimensional deformity of human spine in which there is one or more lateral curvature away from the vertical direction in the thoracic or lumbar region. The analysis of scoliosis is required through clinical and radiographic evaluation in order to present a thorough assessment of this three dimensional deformity (1). The absence of timely diagnosis causes problems in appearance, manner of sitting, and, in severe cases, lung problems, respiratory, and cardio complications.