Moral Injury

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Applied anatomy: The thoracolumbar area is extending from the tenth thoracic to the second lumbar vertebra as this area has a similar feature as regards its anatomy and as it is the most common area affected by the spinal injuries.(11) The thoracic and lumbar vertebrae form three primary ossification centers, one for the left and right sides of the neural arch, and one for the body. they are fusing between the ages of 2 and 6 years. The two neural arches provide space for the spinal canal. There are four typical physes: the endplate on the cephalad and caudad aspect of each body, and a neurocentral physis at the junction of the body with each pedicle. (12) Normal vertebral bodies in young children may Appear slightly wedged, particularly in the thoracic spine because of incomplete enchondral ossification at the endplates. (13) The end plates begin to fuse when the child is 14 to 15 years of age and may be confused with fractures until fusion occurs at 21 to 25 years of age.(13) Ossification of the growth plates (end plate) at the age of 7-8 years creates a groove at the corner of each vertebral body. This groove is circumferential around the upper and lower end plates of each vertebra. The ligaments and discs attach to this groove, which is therefore an apophyseal ring. The ring apophysis develops…show more content…
They transmit load arising from body weight and muscle activity through the spinal column and also provide flexibility to the spine by allowing bending, flexion and torsion. Generally, the discs consist of three highly specialized structures: the anulus fibrosus, the nucleus pulposus and the cartilage endplate that forms the interface with the adjacent vertebral bodies. The annulus fibrosus is made up of 15-25 concentric rings consisting of parallel collagen fibers. Surrounded by the annulus fibrosus is the nucleus pulposus,the gelatinous core of the intervertebral
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