Morphology: Affix and Morphemes Cranberry Morphemes Essay

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What is Morphology? LING 201 §Definition: the study of the construction of words out of morphemes Morphology Janice Fon The Ohio State University 1 Morphemes (I) 2 Morphemes (II) §Definition: smallest linguistic unit that has a meaning or grammatical function l l free morpheme: morphemes that can stand alone as words (ex) clock, sick bound morpheme: morphemes that always attach to other morphemes, never existing as words themselves (ex) -ly, non- Morpheme (according to positions) Free (Stem) (ex) tiger Bound (Affix) Prefix (ex) non-refundable Infix (ex) Cinder-fucking-rella Suffix (ex) friend-ly 3 Morpheme (III) 4 Morphemes (IV) §Categorization according to functions:…show more content…
appointment) l l l sweet-er vs. act-or vs. report-er l 13 Beware of Pitfalls! 14 Hierarchical Structure (I) §morpheme ≠ syllable l clouds (2m1s) vs. flower (1m2s) §not every instance of the sound sequence in the language represents the morpheme l runs vs. kids vs. John’s vs. whiz [z] §do not be fooled by the spelling l ed-ible vs. wash-able 15 Hierarchical Structure (II) 16 Hierarchical Structure (III) N §re- + V ‘do V again’ l l re-write, re-do, re-cycle, re-tell re-usable? re-forestation? re-analysis? reforest §un- + A ‘not’ l l -ation V un-easy, un-conscious, un-even, un-wary un-decide-ed?, un-worthiness?, un-world-ly? re- V forest 17 18 3 Hierarchical Structure (IV) Word Formation Processes N A §Word formation process: how new words are being formed in the language -ness unworthi un- l A worthi V productive morpheme: characteristic of a morpheme such that it is used to form new words • (ex) -ness is more productive than -tion in making nouns -i worth 19 Ambiguity Major Word Formation Processes I A un- §Affixation: process of forming words by adding affixes to morphemes A -able V 20 l A un- V V lock l lock l -able l 21 Major Word Formation Processes II § Compounding: word formation process by which new words are formed by combining two

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