Main sequence stars like our own sun enduring in a state of nuclear fusion during which they will produce energy for billions of years by replacing hydrogen to helium. Stars change over billions of years. When their main sequence phase ends they pass through other states of existence according to their size and other characteristics. The larger a star's mass, the shorter its lifespan is. As stars move toward the end of their lives, much of their hydrogen will be converted to helium. Helium sinks to the star's core and raises the star's temperature—causing its outer shell to expand. These large, puffy stars are known as Red Giants. The red giant phase is actually a prelude to a star shedding its outer layers and becoming a small, dense body called a White Dwarf. White dwarfs cool down for billions and billions of years, until they finally go dark and produce no energy at all. Once this happens, scientists have yet to observe, such stars become known as Black Dwarfs. A few stars avoid this evolutionary path and instead go out with a bang, exploding as Supernovae. These violent explosions leave behind a small core that will then turn into something called a Neutron Star or even, if the remainder is large enough, it is then turned into something called a Black Hole.
The main idea for paragraphs 6-8 in When Stars Explode is how stars do explode. Here are some details: according to the text,“But these nuclear reactions do not make as much energy as hydrogen did. Within a few million years, the star has nothing left." The text also said “So the star's center collapses, scrunching itself into a small, dense object. Meanwhile, the star's outer layer shoots into space at millions of miles per hour. The star has exploded!"
On the cold morning of January 28, 1986, when the temperature hung ten degrees below freezing with the excessive wind chill, The Challenger was set to launch from Cape Canaveral Florida. On board, seven crew members, including the first civilian set to go to space, teacher Christa McAuliffe, awaited the final order to launch. As thousands of children watched on television, the shuttle left the platform, and seconds later, erupted into a plume of smoke, killing all on board. Even though the explosion of The Challenger was a tragedy for America’s space program, the disaster taught NASA many new lessons, a promised a bright future for space exploration,and reinforced the importance of science and math in school.
Type II supernova results from the rapid collapse and explosion of a massive star. For a star to explode as a type II supernova it must be several times more massive than the sun. it is estimated that their mass must be at least 8 times greater than that of the sun, but no more than 40-50 times the suns mass.
Heavier elements such as iron, magnesium, oxygen, neon, and sulfur remained from the supernova of a star would attract cool gases, dust, and other elements due to its gravity. As a result, this would either create a new planet or a new star.
Stars are born or formed in Nebulae or Nebulas are huge interstellar clouds, in inter-galactic space, of dust and gas (mostly hydrogen H2) There is an abundance of such stellar nurseries in the arms of Spiral Galaxies. The birth of star occurs many atoms of light elements are compressed and squeezed under tremendous pressure and their nuclei undergo fusion. All stars are results of Balanced forces – The force of Gravity will compress atoms in Intergalactic and interstellar gas until such time that fusion reactions begin and once this these fusion reactions start an outward pressure is exerted. Provided that the inward force of gravity and the outward force of the outward fusion reactions remain equal the Stars remains stable. Nebulae are common in our galaxy and in galaxies similar to ours. Nebula
Heinrich Wilhelm Olbers born in 1758 in Arbergen,Germany ,the eighth child of sixteen ,was an astronomer who created a theory that started with one question, Why is the night sky dark if it is full of stars? There are many stars in space some are brighter than others and there are many sizes. The smallest is a dwarf star and the largest is a supergiant.The temperature rising is caused by the pressure that is building up inside the star. As a star's lifespan comes to an end the stars hydrogen becomes helium. When the helium makes it's way to the core of the star the temperature rises and it's outer shell expands. The large fireballs are well known as red giants.(stars national geographic)
In the video of " We are stardust harvesting starlight" by Kraus, Tyson, and Sagan, it was mentioned that every atom present in the universe came from the explosion of a star. The collapse explosion of an unstable heavy star introduced the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen which is required to form life on earth. A statement "Forget Jesus, the stars died so that you could be here" meant that instead of looking at the religious point of view of how living forms arrived on earth, it is essential that the scientific perspective of the arrival of life forms is considered. Stars are exploded due to factors of pressure and temperature in order to release necessary elements which are the building blocks of life. The elements are a part
Around 14 billion years ago, a giant nebula concentrated into a single tiny point, then proceeded to enlarge rapidly in a hot explosion and continues to expand. This explosion is said to have created the Universe, and is called the “big bang”. This same process happens when a star is being created. A large cloud of dust and gas, called a
A supernova is a marvelous thing that happens in space, and scientists are trying to use these explosions of stars to learn more about our expanding galaxy with the debris and elements that explode from the supernova, the largest explosion in space which can outshine many galaxies. Since the stars is a large distance away, when the supernova does happen, it would have actually happened a couple hundred years ago, because the light takes many years to reach our eyes. A supernova can happen in two different ways, known by a Type 1 supernova and a Type 2 supernova.
Energy from a nearby supernova may have started the collapse of the gas cloud that formed our solar system. Evidence for this statement may include that supernovas explode and disturb surrounding areas or things. Due to the supernova exploding, the gas cloud occurred. As the gas cloud formed, the whole thing was pulled by gravity and attracted gas and dust together, creating a solar nebula. During this, the nebula spun so much that it began to fall apart.
Have you ever seen a supernova in person, if not not it was probably because Supernovas are difficult to see in our own Milky Way galaxy because of dust blocking our view. Supernovas are 33 light years away. A website called eartsky.org stated “there might be one dangerous supernova event in Earth’s vicinity every 15 million years” . Another says, “that, on average, a supernova explosion occurs within 10 parsecs (33 light-years) of the Earth every 240 million years.”
Supernovas are the explosion of a star when it reaches the end of its life. There are two ways a star can go supernova. The first way or a Type I supernova occurs in the Binary system which is when two stars orbit the same point. The two stars are a white dwarf and a red giant. A white dwarf is a small dense star that is around the size of a planet and a red giant is a star at its last stages of life. If these two stars are close enough, matter will be transferred to the white dwarf from the red giant. When the star’s core reaches its limit of matter, a thermonuclear detonation will occur leaving nothing behind unless there were leftover elements in the white dwarf or there were elements made in the supernova explosion. One of the elements made in the explosion is radioactive nickel.
There are many stages in the life-cycle of a star. Stars are formed in clouds of gas and dust, also referred to as a nebulae. The lifetime of a star depends on its size; if the star is massive, perhaps like the sun, it will have a shorter life-span. A star like a dwarf star, an extremely small star, will have a longer life-span. Stars begin as protostars, then go into main sequence stars, supergiants, and last but not least, the stars will become old and turn into either a white dwarf or a black hole. You may not be able to see every star in the night sky, but don’t be fooled, space is filled with gas and dust too thin to be seen by the naked eye; this gas and dust is called interstellar medium.
In June of 1908, a fireball descended towards Earth leaving a fiery white trail in its path. It landed in Siberia but it wasn’t like any other asteroid. This one appeared to have exploded in mid air causing Hiroshima like effects. There is no evidence that it hit Earth, but there is a crater shaped lake about five miles from where the suspected spot it landed. The fire ball left thousands of trees on fire, seemingly blowing over millions. This force killed local people as well as animals and there is only one thing that we can conclude about it… it was an asteroid.