Motivation And L2 Motivation

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This part of the literature review section consists of a number of articles on L2 motivation and different theoretical frameworks for studying L2 motivation.
Motivation is usually accounted as a sociopsychological factor that ‘appears to be the second strongest predictor of success, trailing only aptitude’ (Skehan, 1989, cited in Gass et al., 2013, p. 453), but its nature is still unclear. Dörnyei (2001) believes that motivation can be described as an answer why people decided to do something, how long they are going to do it and how hard they are going to pursue it.
Ushioda & Dörnyei (2012) identified 4 stages in the development of motivation field (the social-psychological period, the cognitive-situated period, the process-oriented period and the socio-dynamic period), each of which can be associated with a certain motivation theory and framework. Below will be given a short description of each stage with prominent researchers who have developed certain frameworks or were working, using them:
The social-psychological period (1959–1990). Scholars: Gardner, Lambert
This period is characterized by the work of Robert Gardner and his associates, who considered motivation as a reason of learners’ different
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The focus now is on the complexity of different motivation processes and their development, the relationship between the person and the context is also concerned (Ushioda & Dörnyei, 2012). A new model of motivation was created at this period, which consists from: ideal L2 Self (the model for actual self student, which the person tends to reach), ought-to L2 Self (student agrees that some attributes, such as duties and responsibilities, have to be possessed in order to prevent negative effects, such as blame), and L2 learning experience (motivators associated with previous learning
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