Motivation And School Applications Of Motivation

839 Words Jun 26th, 2015 4 Pages
Motivation and School Applications

Early theoretical models of motivation consider its source to be primarily instinctive

(Schunk, 2012). The stimuli-response model of the behaviorist paradigm did not account for the

cognitive aspects current theorists assert are intrinsic to the learning process (Martinez, 2010; Schunk, 2012). Behaviorism is the attempt to understand humans through observations of their actions rather than on a cognitive level and considers the learning process as a superficial construction between stimuli and responses (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000; Schunk, 2012). The advent of cognitive sciences in the 1950s changed how learning was theorized and began to examine the importance of the social and cultural contexts of the learning process (Bransford et al, 2000). Behaviorism in the context of the learning environment may yield the transfer of knowledge but does so in a way reliant on the promise of external rewards (Schunk, 2012). While the use of extrinsic motivation and reward systems are widespread in learning environments to help maintain engagement and appropriate behaviors, it is also of high importance to foster and maintain intrinsic motivation in students so the reward is the learning experience and growth itself (Martinez, 2010; Schunk, 2012). The positivist climate in schools may make it difficult to cultivate intrinsically motivated students as test scores, peer comparisons, teacher praise, and promotion are all extrinsic…
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