Motivation, Learning, And Memory

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Motivation, learning, and memory were formally thought to only be associated with psychology; however neuroscience has demonstrated that biology is also a factor (Silverthorn, 2012). From a neurological standpoint, learning occurs when a new electrical impulse crosses a gap called a synapse in the brain. When information is new and unfamiliar these impulses must cross the synapse more often to strengthen the new pathway, thereby solidifying the acquisition of the new information. After absorbing the new concept a network of hippocampal cells become associated with that memory, making it easier to cross that synapse in the future to access any knowledge associated with that pathway (Suzuki, 2015). This is why it is easier to remember something that is accessed more often. The new information is processed and placed in the short or long-term memory where it can be classified as procedural or declarative knowledge. Declarative knowledge usually refers only to facts, whereas procedural knowledge usually encompasses skills and experiences. In order for students to retain the knowledge they are taught it needs to be transferred to declarative memory so it is stored but also accessible at a later time (Anderson, 1981).
Students learn through reading, thinking, writing, listening, note taking, observing, and by communicating with others. Within these common learning methods, there are three distinct types of learning styles (Brown, 1997): auditory, visual and kinesthetic. Each
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