Motivation Theories And Techniques A Manager Can Incorporate In An Organization

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Motivation Theories And Techniques A Manager Can Incorporate In An Organization

Introduction

Motivation is difficult to explain and practice. However motivation is still the one thing that makes people productive in their jobs. Whether the motivation is tangible or not it all depends on the individual and how management takes the information and applies it. There are many theories and practices that can be studied and applied to any situation. Motivational theory are studied and practiced by theorist and companies to increase productivity.

According to Jerald Greenberg (1999) scientist have defined motivations “as the process of arousing, directing and maintaining behavior towards a goal”. The act of arousing is related
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Incentives are external factors that give value or utility to the goal or outcome of the employees' behavior (Auth, 1999).

Hawthorne Experiments

George Elton Mayo was in charge of certain experiments on human behavior carried out at the Hawthorne Works of the General Electric Company in Chicago between 1924 and 1927. There were a variety of experiments done that affected the physical surroundings of the work environment. This was done to find a correlation between the physical environment and productivity. However in one of Mayo’s experiment he observed that the controlled group and the test group both increased productivity. The basis of this experiment was to have one environment change by lighting and the other group would stay unchanged. Mayo’s hypothesis was that the group with the change in environment with different lighting would produce more. However his hypothesis was proven wrong instead he concluded that the reason that both groups were being more productivity was because the groups were receiving special attention (Greenberg 1999). Thus concluding that making an employee feel special motivates them to do their best.

The next study was the opposite of the previously discussed case. The experiment was conducted at a company’s bank wiring room men from different work groups were observed and interviewed. This experiment made no changes to the working environments. The results showed that
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