Motivation Theories

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3473X_CH02_4759.qxd 1/31/07 8:45 AM Page 23 CHAPTER © Jones and Bartlett Publishers. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION 2 Management and Motivation Nancy H. Shanks LEARNING OBJECTIVES By the end of this chapter the student will be able to: ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Frame the context for understanding the concept of motivation, particularly who and what motivates employees; Provide an overview of the different theories of motivation; Identify extrinsic and intrinsic factors that impact motivation; Assess misconceptions about motivation; and, Suggest strategies to enhance employee motivation. INTRODUCTION Managers are continually challenged to motivate a workforce to do two things. The first challenge is to motivate…show more content…
NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION 26 CHAPTER 2 ■ ■ ■ M ANAGEMENT AND M OTIVATION Belonging needs—including the desire for social contact and interaction, friendship, affection, and various types of support; Esteem needs—including status, recognition, and positive regard; and, Self-actualization needs—including the desire for achievement, personal growth and development, and autonomy. The movement from one level to the next was termed satisfaction progression by Maslow, and it was assumed that over time individuals were motivated to continually progress upward through these levels. While useful from a theoretical perspective, most individuals do not view their needs in this way, making this approach to motivation a bit unrealistic. ■ Alderfer’s ERG Theory—The three components identified by Alderfer (1972) drew upon Maslow’s theory, but also suggested that individuals were motivated to move forward and backward through the levels in terms of motivators. He reduced Maslow’s levels from five to the following three: ■ Existence—which related to Maslow’s first two needs, thus combining the physiological and safety needs into one level; ■ Relatedness—which
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