Motivation Theories and Employee Performance Essay

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In an organization, it is very important to learn how to motivate employees. Motivation refers to the set of forces that influence people to choose various behaviors among several alternatives available to them. The performance of an employee is definitely affected by motivation, his capabilities, and the work environment (Shanks, 2007). The management of an organization is constantly under the challenge of motivating the workforce for two purposes. The first reason is to motivate employees into actively and willingly participating in the achievement of organizational goals. Second is to motivate employees into to attaining personal goals (Shanks, 2007). This paper aims at exploring the behavior based, need based, and job based theories of…show more content…
There are various behaviors that are exhibited by employees who feel they are being treated inequitably. These include putting less effort in the job, asking for rewards and better treatment, finding out how to portray their jobs as more important and better through comparison, and quitting jobs or obtaining transfers (Nicholson, 2003). This theory implies that people behave according to their perceptions and therefore what the management thinks or does may not influence performance. Expectancy Theory The Expectancy Theory offers one of the most widely accepted views of motivation. According to this theory a worker is motivated to be more productive depending on their belief that: 1. Their effort will result in a good appraisal of performance. 2. Good appraisals will culminated in rewards from the organization. 3. The rewards that the organization will offer will satisfy their needs. The mainstay of this theory is in comprehending one’s goals and how effort relates to performance, how performance relates to rewards, and finally how rewards translate in individual satisfaction. According to this theory motivation is high when expectancy levels are high and rewards are lucrative and satisfying. In order for managers to motivate subordinates they have to strengthen the perceptions of workers with respect to their efforts as both worthwhile and possible. They also have to clarify workers’ expectations
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