Motivation has been defined by Ellis (2006) as “The attitudes and effective states that influence

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Motivation has been defined by Ellis (2006) as “The attitudes and effective states that influence the degree of effort that learners make to learn an L2”. It is thought to be one of the main factors that influence a learner’s success or failure in learning a second language. Affective variables, including attitude, orientation, anxiety and motivation have been shown to be at least as important as language aptitude for predicting L2 achievement (Gardner, 1985), and motivation is now thought to be one of the main factors that influence a learner’s success or failure in learning a second language. In this essay I will outline four of the major models of motivation that have been described, and evaluate each of their relevancies to second…show more content…
Some studies have indicated that integrative orientation is a good predictor of L2 learning success. In a study carried out by Gardner on the effect of a variety of factors on the success in learning French in a school in Montreal, Canada. The students were assessed by questionnaires to determine how integratively or instrumentally motivated they were. Those students who gave integrative reasons for learning French were found to be better motivated, had more positive attitudes towards French Canadians, and had more success in learning French than the students who gave instrumental reasons for learning the language. +more studies showing integrative orientation to be a good predictor Other studies have suggested that instrumental orientation could be an equivalent or better predictor of L2 learning success than integrative orientation. Chihara & Oller, 1978 It has recently been proposed that these two orientations are not mutually exclusive. The main criticism of the integrative/instrumental model of motivation is that it may not be relevant in all contexts. Early studies carried out by Gardner took place in the bilingual environment of Canada, where French learners would frequently interact with members of the French-speaking community. Crookes and Schmidt asserted that “Integrativeness is not equally important for second-language achievement in classroom-based ‘foreign’ instruction outside Canada” (Crookes & Schmidt, 1981). That is, the theory
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