ISIS, or Daesh, is an Islamic terrorist organization that spawned from a marriage between disgruntled rebels in Syria and Iraq, and a splinter group from the weakened terrorist group, Al Qaeda. Formerly known as AQI or (Al Qaeda in Iraq), ISIS went through multiple stages of development before becoming what it is today. In this paper, I will be exploring only two of the many causes of ISIS' rise: The Arab spring's effect of paving the way for ISIS, and the convoluted US politics that allowed, and eventually helped to create ISIS itself.
The Middle East has recently been the topic of many news sources as there is so much uncertainty in the region today. Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Iraq, and Syria are all having problems and they continue to worry the outside world. Saudi Arabia has recently put King Salman in power, following the death of his half-brother, and with the current economy in the Middle East, a state that possess so much influence in an already unstable region, to become unstable in itself may cause significant catastrophes (Botelho). Yemen is also in turmoil with its own current problems. “[The United States] does not even know who is in charge right now. We know that rebels have moved in, they have exerted tremendous influence, and we can’t say exactly who will be in charge there in the future” (Botelho). With rebels moving in, the United States also fears of the fact that Yemen has been known as a source of terrorism (Botelho). Along with the other problems, in 2011, President Obama’s agenda was enforced and the United States pulled all troops
This paper will briefly explain the geographical layout of Libya, the ethnic background, and religion . This paper will examine the current events that have devastated the country of Libya, and assess the threat to regional stability. This paper will also expound upon how a destabilized Libya affects its relationship with the U.S. This paper will also explain the significance that the U.S. has in a stable and affluent Libya.
Providing security in the middle east has been a priority and also a challenge for the international community, especially within the last two decades. Through this time period the middle east as a region, despite its wealth of natural resources, has experienced severe conflict caused by corruption, religious tensions, and the disenfranchisement of local citizens just to highlight a few crucial issues. Because of these issues the Middle East has been a hotbed for instability. My article, “What Will It Take to Prevent a Security Decline in Mosul” is a briefing by two RAND Corporation security fellows Shelly Culbertson and Linda Robinson. In their briefing they discuss main challenges the international community must prioritize addressing in
One of Qaddafi’s first moves as the leader of Libya was to remove the US and UK military bases in Libya to show that Libya was free from foreign influence. Qaddafi’s strong pan-Arabic sentiments are exhibited by seven attempts at unification with other countries, such as the United Arab Republic with Egypt and Syria and the Arab Islamic Republic with Tunisia. Qaddafi’s alliance with the Soviet Union and his support for terrorism around the world caused the US to cease arms sales to Libya. The US and the UK also charged Libya with bombing of a Pan Am flight. This and another bombing on a French airline led to UN Resolutions 731 and 748 along with the US Iran-Libya Sanctions Act
Informants watched people in government offices, factories, and schools, and dissidents both at home and living abroad were executed or assassinated.” (Recknagel, 2011:1) As well, fear was instilled across the country from Gaddafi’s forty member team of highly trained women bodyguards. Gaddafi had previously been linked to supporting many terrorist attacks, such as, the Lockerbie bombing and the 1986 Berlin discotheque bombing. Therefore, from a realist perspective, Libyans had a legitimate reason to resort to civil war because of rational self interest. Libyans feared what actions the regime may undertake if they remained in power.
Al-Shabaab as a terrorist group poses a significant threat in Somalia and in the global community. This paper will start by discussing the background. In this part the paper will show how the group has evolved from Al-Ittihad Al-Islam (AIAI) to the Islamic Court Union (ICU) and lastly to Al-Shabaab. Before discussing the group’s threat of national security, homeland and international, this paper will provide the conceptual meaning of key terminology, such as national security, homeland security, international security and globalization. It is important to understand these concepts before moving toward the main argument of the paper. After providing the framework for key concepts, the paper will discuss the group’s threat to Somalia in two areas, national security and homeland security. The paper will go further and identify the threats posed by the group on other nations’ homeland security and international security. We will use East African countries and the United States examples. The paper will provide evidence to support how globalization has shaped and fueled the threats from Al-Shabaab. It will then discuss the primary response from the United States and from African countries through AMISOM. The paper will provide the way forward and suggestions for the response of the international community to Al-Shabaab. In conclusion, we will try to alert the international community that although the group has been experience hard times in Somalia, it is unwise to
In 1950, Algeria started the violent struggle for their independence that was led by National Liberation Front. The 1990s Algeria has been in all kind of turmoil and violence with the government, military, and Islamic fundamentalist group aka Islamic Salvation Front (FIS). Still to this date Algeria have to deal with the Islamic extremism with regards to the al Qaeda in the Lands of the Islamic Maghreb. The highlight of a terrorist group in Algeria is the Armed Islamic Group (GIA) that was formed in 1992 the government disregarded the victory of the FIS and this was the largest Islamic
Al-Qaeda grew from the Service Office founded in 1980 lead by the infamous Osama bin Laden. This was an office that was tasked with destroying Muslim brigade that stood in the way of the Soviets invasion of Afghanistan. However, Laden did not want to stop after this task. He began to train and recruit warriors from over 20 countries. With these fighters, Bin Laden planned to carry the holy war past Afghanistan. This lead to the creation on Al-Qaeda in 1988. The group was focused on removing western influence from Muslim theocracy and create strict Islamic governments.
During 1970’s and 80’s, Qaddafi’s government financed a wide variety of Muslims, anti-U.S., and anti-British terrorist groups worldwide (http://www.history.com). “In January 1986, United States President Ronald Reagan broke all economic ties with Libya”, according to the author of the World Book 2011 (World Book 2011 Edition L, 268). 4 months later, on April 15 of 1986 the U.S. launched bombs in Libya (https://www.britannica.com). “The bombings lasted about 12 minutes” (https://www.britannica.com). During the 12 minutes of bombing 60 tons of ammunition, military weapons, etc. were dropped on Libya (https://www.britannica.com). Two hours after the attack on Libya President Reagan made a television announcement to U.S. citizens (http://news.bbc.co.uk). President Reagan said “Libya’s agents then planted the bomb, on April 4, the People’s Bureau alerted Tripoli that the attack would be carried out the following morning. The next day, they reported back to Tripoli on the great success of their mission”
Summary: In Serte, Libya; more than 50 people were hung, tortured, and murdered by the terror group ISIS. This has been going on since February of 2015 and it has been a constant issue. They say the group even has a kill list with thousands of supposed enemies that they must kill or they will corrupt their group.
The African nation of Libya has been no stranger to world headlines recently, for varying reasons. The most notable of which being the 2011 NATO led overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi and his regime which held political power in Libya for 42 years. Though, arguably the most memorable event for citizens of the United States would be the attack of the U.S. diplomatic compound in Benghazi on September 11, 2012 which resulted in the death of U.S. Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens and several other U.S. Citizens. The Benghazi attack showed how quickly the people of Libya could turn violent. While not every individual involved in the attack was a radical or a terrorist, radical Islamists did take credit for the attack. The activity of ISIS in Libya
From the time when the United States invaded Iraq eleven years ago, a noxious insurgence aeriated at numerous customs of conflict which has attested irrepressible, malleable, and tenacious strive to convey on hostility. A nation of Saddam and al-Zarqawi, Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS) reins a third of conjointly Syria and Iraq in its charisma avowed bravura of war. Around the beginning of 2010, U.S. and Iraqi forces destroyed two topmost al-Qaeda and Iraq frontrunners; which then sanctioned Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi to become the spearhead of an assemblage destabilized by a strenuous operation directed at culminating a Sunni uprising in the country (CNN, 2015). By virtually all provision, Iraq is entangled in civil war. In addition, ISIS has engrossed nearly twelve thousand supporters from overseas already and at least three thousand devotees are from the West (Feroli & Dulin, 2013).
In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the United States, including its allies, waged brutal campaigns directed at the Al Qaeda leadership and, the Taliban in the Middle East. America’s fight against terrorism nonetheless consumed billions of dollars since the 9/11 attacks. Earlier, countries such as England, Spain, Italy, and Russia, similarly waged wars against the Provisional Irish Republican Army, Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, the Red Brigades and the Chechnya separatists. In most of these cases, research shed light on the mechanisms that led to the demise or the defeat of these terrorist groups. However, when it comes to similar groups located in the southern hemispheric countries such as Nigeria, the mechanisms leading to the group
Almost three years after he died, the United States and Pakistan have officially announced the death of Mullah Mohamed Omar, Taliban leader and arch-terrorist. The Afghan government announced that it holds credible information that in April 2013, Omar died in Pakistan. The US State Department also confirmed the news, but did not give