Mughal Empire

3693 Words May 23rd, 2011 15 Pages
Shāhān-e Moġul
The Mughal Empire
↓ 1526–1858 ↓

Flag of the Mughal Empire

Flag
Map of Mughal Empire in 1700 CE
Mughal Empire (green) during its greatest territorial extent, c. 1700
Capital Agra; Fatehpur Sikri; Delhi
Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai Turkic; later also Urdu)
Religion Hinduism, Sunni Islam, and syncretism
Government Absolute monarchy, unitary state with federal structure
Emperor
- 1526–1530 Babur - 1530–1539, 1555–1556 Humayun - 1556–1605 Akbar - 1605–1627 Jahangir - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan - 1658–1707 Aurangzeb
Historical era Early modern - First Battle of Panipat 21 April 1526 - Indian Rebellion of 1857 20 June 1858
Area
- 1700 3,200,000 km2 (1,235,527 sq mi)
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At that time, he was roaming as a wanderer after losing his principality, Farghana. In his memoirs he wrote that after he had acquired Kabul (in 1514), he desired to regain the territories in Hindustan held once by Turks. He started his exploratory raids from September 1519 when he visited the Indo-Afghan borders to suppress the rising by Yusufzai tribes. He undertook similar raids up to 1524 and had established his base camp at Peshawar. In 1526, Babur defeated the last of the Delhi Sultans, Ibrahim Shah Lodi, at the First Battle of Panipat. To secure his newly founded kingdom, Babur then had to face the formidable Rajput Rana Sanga of Chittor, at the Battle of Khanwa. Rana Sanga offered stiff resistance but was defeated.

Babur's son Humayun succeeded him in 1530, but suffered reversals at the hands of the Pashtun Sher Shah Suri and lost most of the fledgling empire before it could grow beyond a minor regional state. From 1540 Humayun became ruler in exile, reaching the court of the Safavid rule in 1554
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