The Pathology of Multiple Sclerosis Introduction Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurologic disease that affects the Central Nervous System (CNS) through cellular immune response and the demyelination of CNS white matter (McCance et al., 2014, pp. 630–633). The initial causes of MS are unknown however, it is believed that it could possibly
• Physical ability - patient may have had a stoke and able to form words and speak normally and may have lost the ability to find the correct words or say the word due to facial muscles failing. Having other illnesses such as dementia and parkinsons, having to repeat the information
An overview of the chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease: Multiple sclerosis BACKGROUND The central nervous system (CNS) comprises grey matter, which contains neuron cell bodies and white matter, which contains the nerve axons. Most of the nerve axons are concentrically wrapped around by lipid-rich biological membrane, known as the myelin sheath. In the CNS, myelin is produced by oligodendrocyte. a type of glial cell. (Pfeiffer et al., 1993). These electrical insulating, multilamellar membranes significantly increase the electrical resistance, in which to prevent leakage of electrical currents from the axons, as well as decrease electrical capacitance to reduce the ability of the axons to store electrical energy (Shivane &
In the world of neurology, there are a vast amount of neurological disorders, conditions, and diseases. One severe disease is known as Multiple Sclerosis. In this research essay, I will be discussing what multiple sclerosis is, symptoms, causes, personal experience, and treatments.
II. Attention Getter- A saying by Cheryl Peters, “multiple sclerosis affects everyone differently”. III. Benefits to the Audience- Knowledge Secondary- progressive Multiple Sclerosis: it is a type of multiple sclerosis characterized by rare relapses and increased disability.
Clinical Situation James was a farmer, active every day of his life from a very early age. As a child, he helped out with the farm chores and the older her became, was more active in the daily grind of running a farm. His schedule was up before dawn and to bed by 10pm. Over the years of constant movement of his joints, James required a hip repair as the cartilage was nearly destroyed. He was 76 at the time of this first surgery and this is the identified beginning of his progressive aging. James identified himself as the provider in the family and the surgery and ensuing rehab took a hit on his ability to perform at his previous ability. Following his initial surgery, her found himself requiring surgery on the other hip and his lower back. James is seen in the clinic for follow up for evaluation of chronic pain and his functionality in everyday life. He is withdrawn and quiet; answers questions only when asked numerous times. His wife is with him and states he sleeps often throughout the day, moves about very little, and only watches TV. He
“Establishing a care plan that meets the patients’ needs and allows for appropriate interventions as symptoms change.” Patient’s without decision making ability comprise a large portion of the long term care population.” Jenna the IDT (interdisciplinary team) has to have continuing conversations with the patient’s family or decision maker, to help make decisions. “
If you know anyone with Multiple Sclerosis or MS, you would know how terrible the disease is. Multiple Sclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which your immune system attacks the nerve cell covers in the brain and spine are damaged. The nerves in the body eventually deteriorate and it is fatal. According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the cause of Multiple sclerosis is still unknown. There is not a cure at the moment for Multiple Sclerosis, but there are treatments that can speed recovery when attacked by the disease (Mayo Clinic). Scientists are under the impressions that there are a few factors that may come into play. They say that when they discover the exact cause of Multiple Sclerosis it will be easier to find a way to treat the disease or maybe even stop it from happening at all. (National Multiple Sclerosis Society)
Multiple sclerosis, also known as MS, is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease that is very painful for both the patient and care giver. In the disease, there is inflammation and neurodegeneration acting at the same time. There is currently no known primary cause of multiple sclerosis. The disease is however characterized by damaged fatty myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and the spinal cord. Myelin is a mixture of proteins and phospholipids that protects many nerve fibers enabling speed at which impulses are conducted. It is pathologically characterized as the presence of glial scars all over in the central nervous system. The disease was discovered by the French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot in 1868 when he examined the brain
Decisional capacity refers to the patient’s ability to perform a set of cognitive tasks including understanding and processing about diagnosis, prognosis and treatment option; weighing the relative benefits, burdens, risks of therapeutic options; applying a set of values to the analysis; arriving at a decision consistent over time and communicating the decision (Post & Blustein, 2015). Ronald does not meet all the requirements for someone with decisional capacity but this does not mean that he cannot make and specific decisions for himself at a certain time. He has fluctuating decisional capacity but on his best days, he still can dictate his care and the caregiver needs to respect that. Capacity is not global, nor is it constant. The determination of capacity can be problematic because of inconsistencies of time, physical condition at the time it was determined or the individual can manipulate results. Some critics also question pathological mental competence. Ronald, due to his age and clinical condition may demonstrate fluctuating capacity but at a certain degree can still make decisions and has the insight to do so. The caregiver and healthcare professional
Patient or family factors Patient refusal could result from misinterpreting what is said during difficult situations of decision making or due to denial of the truly bad situation, poor registration of bad news or even confusion by multiple sources of information. In addition,
In adult patients suffering from Multiple Sclerosis (MS), research has been done to show that in the brain, deep grey matter atrophy (damage or lesions) is measurable even within the first few years after the first attack. The neurodegenerative aspect of Multiple Sclerosis is crippling not only to the central nervous system, but to important brain substructures like the thalamus, putamen, caudate, and globus pallidus (a major part of the basal ganglia) and could lead to a hindering of brain growth in the brains of adolescents who are in critical stages of development. Researchers on behalf of the Canadian Pediatric Demyelinating Disease Network teamed together to study just that, the impact of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis on age-expected
Multiple Sclerosis (MS), is an autoimmune disease in which the surrounding protective coating layer of the axon, myelin, is degraded, resulting in the formation of inflamed lesions (also referred to as plaques) around the regions of the brain and spinal cord. The myelin sheath is not only a protective layer, but it also increases the speed of electrical impulses transfer across the body via saltatory conduction. Depending on the severity of damage to the myelin, it can slow down or distort messages travelling along nerve fibres, some signals may not pass through at all, as damage may eventually degrade and impair the axon itself. This attack is carried out by cytotoxic T cells (CD8+) , which are activated by tip-dendritic cells. It has been observed in case studies where in the presence of increased concentration of CD8+, there is a positive correlation to the increased damage brought to the myelin. However, there are alternative studies that imply that because the myelin presenting peptide CD4+ is involved in the onset of inflammation, the CD8+ may be the one attempting to prevent the attack on the myelin. Still no one is sure of the cause, or is fully aware of the true functions of the receptors involved.