Mairs describes her life before the disease comparing everything she could do before she was diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. “I pushed baby carriages, changed tires in the rain, marched for peace.” (Mairs pg.54) She seemed to be an active person just like anyone else. But life all suddenly change when the symptoms started to appear. “Because I hate being crippled, I sometimes hate myself for being cripple.” That’s when her true feelings came out about the disease. In that statement, you could feel the anger in her voice. Her emotions change throughout her story, she recalls her happy moments when she didn’t have the disease. Even after having all the symptoms her moods change but she said that you couldn’t live without having some humor. “One may also lose one’s sense of humor. That’s the easiest to lose and the hardest to survive without” (Mairs pg.54) That’s why when she is telling about her accidents she doesn’t pity herself and makes it even look in a way
This can wreak havoc on a person’s emotional state, which Mairs comments, “I am immobilized by acute attacks of depression, which may or may not be physiologically related to MS but are certainly its logical concomitant” (Mairs 67). In addition to the unpredictable physical losses that one can sustain from MS - including vision, coordination, and bladder control - one can also lose their will to live a normal life. Mairs discusses the lives of two women who share the same disease, one of which, “...stays at home and insists that her husband, a small quiet man, a retired civil servant, stay there with her except for a quick weekly foray to the supermarket” (71). The other woman has an active life and tries to participate in as many activities as she would without the disease. Mairs aspires to live like the second woman as her life progresses, but the first woman has obviously lost her mental battle with the disease. Since there is no known cure for MS, the only thing that one who is diagnosed can do is accept that their life will always be changing and it will never be easy. Towards the beginning of her disease, she thought about MS constantly and wondered when the time would come that she would no longer be physically capable of killing herself. Once she learned that she would never finish adjusting, she was able to come to an uneasy peace with her condition. Besides the
Multiple sclerosis has conquered the lives of many of its victims, one of which includes Nancy Mairs. However, Mairs writes an essay describing her experience with the disease and how it has not affected her negatively, as society assumes about the disease’s effects. Mairs does not write her essay to make her audience feel pity for her disease, yet writes to allow people to be more accepting of the disease and of people that have it. She incorporates the word “cripple” to describe the strength MS gave her, rather than politically correct or polite words such as “handicapped” or “disabled.” Mairs’ rhetorical structure in her essay allow readers to see a courageous and empowered author in which she has the ability to persevere through experiences
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an acquired demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that typically is diagnosed in the second or third decade of life. Normally, nerves are enclosed in myelin sheaths that help facilitate transmission of nerve impulses within the CNS and the peripheral nervous system throughout the body. In patients with MS, the myelin sheath is damaged and eventually degenerates, causing patches of scar tissue called plaques or lesions to occur anywhere randomly on the myelin sheath (Ruto, 2013). This results in impaired nerve conductivity, which interferes with message transmission between the brain and the other parts of the body. As a result, impulse transmission is altered, distorted, short-circuited,
As a senior this year, I am looking forward to several endeavors, such as leading my team in my last year of cheerleading, participating in a Senior Engineering Design Project, and continuing to volunteer with VSVS, a program that allows Vanderbilt student to teach science lessons in local elementary schools. Moreover, I spent this past summer working on my research at the Vanderbilt Institute of Imaging Science and will continue my projects throughout the school year. I am excitingly close to finishing the project I have been working on that involves a magnetic resonance imaging study of patients with multiple sclerosis. We have employed quantitative magnetization transfer techniques at 7-Tesla field strength to obtain indices reflective
Multiple sclerosis, or MS, is a disease of the central nervous system. The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. Both have nerve fibers that are wrapped in a myelin sheath. In MS, the myelin sheath becomes inflamed and gradually is destroyed. With the destruction of the myelin sheath comes an array of symptoms that may include numbness or tingling, balance problems, weakness, muscle spasms, and blurred vision.
The central nervous system (CNS) comprises grey matter, which contains neuron cell bodies and white matter, which contains the nerve axons. Most of the nerve axons are concentrically wrapped around by lipid-rich biological membrane, known as the myelin sheath. In the CNS, myelin is produced by oligodendrocyte. a type of glial cell. (Pfeiffer et al., 1993). These electrical insulating, multilamellar membranes significantly increase the electrical resistance, in which to prevent leakage of electrical currents from the axons, as well as decrease electrical capacitance to reduce the ability of the axons to store electrical energy (Shivane &
In the world of neurology, there are a vast amount of neurological disorders, conditions, and diseases. One severe disease is known as Multiple Sclerosis. In this research essay, I will be discussing what multiple sclerosis is, symptoms, causes, personal experience, and treatments.
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurologic disease that affects the Central Nervous System (CNS) through cellular immune response and the demyelination of CNS white matter (McCance et al., 2014, pp. 630–633). The initial causes of MS are unknown however, it is believed that it could possibly be due to an immune response to an initiating infection or an autoimmune response to CNS antigens on the myelin itself (Brück, 2005) (Miljković and Spasojević, 2013). MS is a result of the degradation of the myelin sheath surrounding neurons and therefore disrupts the transmission of action potentials along these cells. MS can display itself in the form of symptoms ranging from muscle weakness to trouble with sensation and coordination (NHS, 2016). The degradation of myelin leads the body to attempt to remyelinate the neurons, a process that in turn leads to the thickening of the cell by glial cells and this causes lesions to form (Chari, 2007). It is this thickening (sclerae) from which the disease gets its name. Sufferers of MS can either have a relapsing type of MS, in which there are episodes that lead to the worsening of symptoms for a period of time, or a progressive type of MS where symptoms gradually progress and worsen (McCance et al., 2014, pp. 630–633).
Additionally, Mairs continues to discuss the role of society in her struggle with multiple sclerosis. Though she has a relatively positive perspective of herself, Mairs admits that her self- perception often wavers not only because of the realities of MS, but also from societal pressures. “Part of the pressure arises from social expectations. In our society, anyone who deviates from the norm had better find some way to compensate.” Because of this, Mairs intends to be a “good cripple” and live life to the best of her ability. She recalls her adolescent conflict with self-alienation that was due to the influence of society’s version of an ideal woman, and how those feelings resurged in response to the devastation diagnosis of MS. “Like many women I know, I have always had an uneasy relationship with my body...the self-loathing I feel is neither physically nor intellectually substantial. What I hate is not me but a
Multiple Sclerosis, commonly known as MS is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system. Scientists have been studying MS since the 19th century. In MS, the body’s immune system produces cells and antibodies that attack myelin in your brain which is essential for the nerves in your brain and spinal cord to conduct electricity to perform its function. The attack on myelin results in vison loss, paralysis, numbness, muscle weakness, difficulty walking, stiffness, spasms, and bladder and bowel problems. MS has varying degrees of severity and affects people between the ages of 20-50, mostly women. Although there are treatments, there is no cause and cure yet.
She talks about the progression of MS throughout her life, and gives numerous examples of other people she knows who are also afflicted, and different ways she reacts to them. She ranges from the aforementioned two older women to another friend, Michael (243), providing her readers with a variety of people to identify with. Once she has them seeing themselves in the piece, they are also able to see themselves in her. By seeing the good and bad aspects of Mairs’
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, progressive neurological disease affecting all aspects of life: physical, cognitive, emotional, and social (Abma). It is known as an autoimmune disease, Where the body’s immune system turns against the body and destroys the protective covering that surrounds nerve cells. This damage to the nerve cells causes many problems for the patient including weakness, muscle stiffness, poor coordination and balance, tingling, numbness, tremors, blurred vision, slurred speech, and memory and concentration problems (Bren)
Multiple Sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder where the myelin sheath within the Central Nervous System is attacked (National Multiple Sclerosis Society, 2017). The myelin sheath protects the axon of the nerve cell. When the myelin sheath is intact, the axon is able to carry impulses away from the neuron’s cell body, and the message carried is clear. With Multiple Sclerosis, the myelin sheath becomes scarred, hence the word “sclerosis”, and distorts the nerve impulses traveling over the CNS (National Multiple Sclerosis Society, 2017). This may cause the message to be changed or stopped altogether.