Musculoskeletal Conditions

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There are over 200 recognised musculoskeletal conditions.(15) An IPSOS Mori poll showed that three in every ten adults (29%) are currently affected by arthritis or joint pain translating to thirteen million people across the UK.(16) The prevalence can vary from about 10% in younger adults, rising to nearly 40% in the over 75 years age group. (17) The prevalence figures reflect the burden of musculoskeletal conditions with 15–20% of people seeking care for a musculoskeletal problem during the course of a year. (17)

Apart from being common, musculoskeletal disorders can result in significant morbidity and are associated with rising societal and health costs. They are the main source of chronic pain worldwide(18) and the single biggest cause
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According to a systematic review, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) is the socio-cognitive theory most often used for the prediction of behaviours in health-care professionals.(52) According to the TPB,(54) three factors determine an individual's intention to perform a particular behaviour: attitude, subjective norm (social pressures) and perceived behavioural control (perceived difficulty to perform a behaviour). Bandura`s Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) model (55) is another theoretical model which has underpinned interventions aiming to change clinicians` behaviour (56) and talks about outcome expectancies and how beliefs about the consequences of a behaviour can influence the behaviour itself. (57) Everett Rogers' diffusion of innovation theory advocates five key stages in the process of adoption of new behaviours: knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation. (58, 59) The diffusion of innovation model can be used both to promote behavioural change at individual and organisational levels.…show more content…
According to a recent report on modern medical generalism, the most obvious contrast that distinguishes generalism and specialism is that specialism is about depth while generalism is about breadth:
‘the greater the depth of expertise in a branch of medicine, the more specialist the doctor; the greater the breadth of expertise, the more generalist’. (33)
The report goes on to say that in reaching a diagnosis ‘whereas the specialist relies heavily on scientific evidence to arrive at a precise explanation of an illness within a limited range of possibilities, the generalist (especially the GP) takes a far broader approach to arrive at one or more probabilities and decide whether or not action is needed’. The quality of clinical care in both settings is similar but the care is delivered in very different ways. (73-75) Therefore, educational interventions that aim to improve the management of musculoskeletal conditions by GPs need to be specifically designed and evaluated incorporating this generalist
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