“Thou shalt not be a victim, thou shalt not be a perpetrator, but above all, thou shalt not be a bystander” (A), these wise words were spoken by Yehuda Bauer, 65 years after the start of the Holocaust. Italy, under the rule of fascist dictator Benito Mussolini, was one of the many countries who turned her back on the Jewish people. Because of political, social and economic reasons, Italy was a bystander to the heinous crimes inflicted on the Jewish population.
HIST215 – Later Modern Europe,1789-1939 Assessment Task One Research Essay The rise and subsequent take-over of power in Germany by Hitler and the Nazi Party in the early 1930s was the culmination and continuation not of Enlightenment thought from the 18th and 19th century but the logical conclusion of unstable and cultural conditions
Benito Mussolini and his creation of Fascism was the glue that held Italy together. Fascism promised national unity and condemned the Socialist party. To understand how Fascism became powerful within Italy, it is imperative to acknowledge the driving force behind this regime. To put it bluntly, violence played an essential role in the development of the Fascist party. Mussolini’s practice of fierceness was able to create a formidable system of government that did not tolerate weakness. In 1919, Benito Mussolini give an Afternoon speech, where he stressed the difference between Socialism and Fascism. Here, he states, “We declare war, against socialism, not because it is socialism, but because it opposes nationalism” (Stone 2013, 38).
DOCTRINE OF FASCISM Benito Mussolini outlines several essential characteristics of his preferred political ideology, Fascism, in what has become known as the Doctrine of Fascism. In this paper, Mussolini outlines his vision of the ideology, and explains the major issues that Fascism will address once it becomes the leading political system in Italy. Mussolini’s major points as outlined in the Doctrine included an extreme emphasis on nationalism, organization and modernization of the state, persistent focus on religion, life as a struggle, and the notion that individuals exist only for the improvement of society as a whole. Wolfgang Schieder, after reviewing the Doctrine of Fascism, explains Mussolini’s success based on it and
Even though Hindenburg was re-elected with a ballot of 53%, Hitler was only marginally behind with a ballot of 36.8%. By the 1932 election, the Nazi’s accounted for 37.3% or 230 seats in the Reichstag. These figures meant that the Nazi party were the largest party in the Reichstag, although they did not have an outright majority and therefore could not assume automatic power. By January 1933, Hitler was appointed Chancellor by President Hindenburg.
MUSSOLINI’S FOREIGN POLICY In the early days of Mussolini’s regime (he came to power in 1922), Italian foreign policy seemed rather confused: Mussolini knew what he wanted, which was ‘to make Italy great, respected and feared.’ But he was not sure how to achieve this, apart from agitating for a revision of the 1919 peace settlement in Italy’s favour. At first he seemed to think an adventurous foreign policy was his best line of action, hence the Corfu Incident and the occupation of Fiume in 1923. By an agreement signed at Rapallo in 1920, Fiume was to be a ‘free city’, used jointly by Italy and Yugoslavia; after Italian troops moved in, Yugoslavia agreed that it should belong to Italy. After these early successes, Mussolini became
INTRODUCTION During the Second World War, Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini was the leader of the Italian Nationalist Fascist government. He was head of the Italian government from 1922 till 1943. The significance of Mussolini is that he played a key role acting as the Italian Prime Minister and established a totalitarian regime, during this time, as the unchallenged supreme leader, known as ‘Il Duce’. Fascism consisted of many contributors of which Mussolini with all his quirks was the key to most of its failures and successes, making him the most significant player that is worthy of being investigated. This topic is worthy of being investigated as Mussolini made a lot of decisions that lead to the death of many, but the question as to
<br> <br>Hitler, however, found a way to please the people of Germany, and after the rebuilding of his Nazi dynasty he was back in the race for the dictatorship of Germany. Hitler despised and overthrew all the other political parties, and the Nazis became the strongest political party. "At midday on January 30, 1933, Hitler was sworn in as Chancellor. By nightfall the streets
Even though Germany was left in a period of struggle and economic weakness after WW1, Adolf Hitler would take a stand by creating a party that would help refine the structure of the economy. This party, when abbreviated, was called Nazi, would also create harsh laws and unrelentless punishment. Due to the Nazi party’s quick growth, there was an immediate impact on lifestyle and politics for the people of Germany. The long term impact brought forth by the consequences or legacy of the Nazi party included a population decrease and an increase in deaths. To make both of these impacts, Hitler had to overcome many hard challenges.
Both wanted the power and wanted to win the election. Communism threatened established power and was targeting more on the rich people and businesses. Part of this strategy was to blame less extreme parties “for causing Germany's problems. As these parties had been unable to work together to solve country's problems, people became more afraid that the Communists may take over so the moderate parties turned to the Nazis to keep the Communists out” (Millan). After the Nazi party took in 37% of the vote, Hitler demanded to become the next Chancellor, but President Hindenburg chose Franz von Papen instead. Von Papen was soon replaced by General Kurt von Schleicher, however, Schleicher’s government was also unable to control the Reichstag. Excited to regain power, “von Papen struck a deal to make Hitler Chancellor, with himself as Vice-Chancellor. The moderate parties would hold all but three of the government posts, which would go to the Nazis; one of these would be Hitler as Chancellor” (Millan). President Hindenburg wanted to continue with the plan that was set up by Von Papen in hope of creating more of a stable government. Hitler’s party was able to get the popular vote from the German people and so now Hitler has gained power and their
Benito Mussolini employed ancient Rome’s heritage, or romanità, as the method to propel his Fascist state. This concept focused on the exploits of Ancient Rome, and it sought to align the city’s historical past with the Fascist’s idealized future. Mussolini used ancient architecture and symbols as propaganda, which served to represent him as the ideal, destined ruler. He compared himself to Augustus, who guided Rome to peace and transformed the state into an empire. Mussolini also created vast piazzas that emphasized the existing ancient architecture, merging the past with the present. Using the past as a precedent, Mussolini created an effective propaganda campaign that employed Rome’s bountiful art and architecture, establishing a sense of nationalism within the Italian people. With propaganda, Mussolini merged ancient and modern art and revived the pride of ancient Rome. An analysis of Mussolini’s use of art and architecture as propaganda emphasizes the relationship between the Fascist’s ideals and the romanità and how Mussolini manipulated the people to view Fascist art as the modern, ideal Roman art.
What is Fascism? Fascism is a 20th century form of nationalistic, militaristic, totalitarian dictatorship that seeks to create a feasible society through strict regimentation of national and individual lives. Total subordination to the service of the state and unquestioning loyalty to its leader would adjust conflicting interests. It is
Generalissimo Francisco Franco came into power after his victory in the Civil war in 1939 and ruled over Spain till his death in 1975. In this 40-year period Spain was massive changed that causes much debate as to the political nature of Franco’s regime whether it is fascist or something
The economy's recovery was very slow, but now most people had work, homes, food, and hopes for the future. After the revolt, the government decided to outlaw the Nazi party.
1. Introduction 1870 is a year to remember in Italian history: indeed, on 20 September 1870, the Italian army marched into Rome and captured the city, completing the unification process begun by Garibaldi and his Thousand in Sicily ten years earlier, in 1860.