Myostatin Protein Analysis

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The myostatin protein binds to an operator and prevents the gene for muscle growth from being expressed. (Joulia-Ekaza & Cabello 2006)
The protein also maintains a stable equilibrium of the muscles in adults. (Joulia-Ekaza & Cabelloa 2006)
When the MSTN gene, the gene which encodes myostatin, is deleted the fat and skeletal muscle mass within the organism is affected. (Joulia-Ekaza & Cabello 2006)
The deletion of the MSTN gene is a natural mutation which occurs in both animals and humans; however, it can also be induced. (Joulia-Ekaza & Cabello 2006)
This such mutation was only recently discovered in humans, more specifically, it was discovered in a young boy. (Joulia-Ekaza & Cabello 2006)
The growth of the muscles, when the gene is deleted,
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(Lee 2004)
Similarly, hypertrophy is the increased size of the muscle fibres. (Lee 2004)
Both hypertrophy and hyperplasia work together in order to both contribute to the increased muscle mass. (Joulia-Ekaza, and Cabello 2007)
During adult muscle growth, the satellite cells located along the muscle fibres will increase in number and then merge with the fibre. When merging, the muscle fibre now has more nuclei and increased chances of creating new muscle protein. (Joulia-Ekaza, and Cabello 2007)
When an organism reduces its physical movements, muscle atrophy increases while the MSTN gene expression decreases, significantly. (Joulia-Ekaza, and Cabello 2007)
-Previous mice studies showed that hyperplasia and hypertrophy worked together to form the weight gained in organisms who had the double muscle phenotype; however, this is not true with cattle. Instead, it is only hyperplasia. (Joulia-Ekaza, and Cabello 2006)
The detected of the natural mutation can occur early in the life time of an organism. For example, in bovine fetuses, the natural mutation is detected as early as 30 days of gestation. (Joulia-Ekaza, and Cabello
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This raises questions as to what its role is in the muscle wasting during aging. (Joulia-Ekaza and Cabello 2007)
It was discovered by McPherron et al 1997 that the inhibition of the myostatin gene might have important applications for human diseases and the genetic manipulation of farm animals. (Lee 2004)
Just like cattle, the human myostatin gene is located on the human chromosome 2. (Lee 2004)
Future studies need to be done to determine if manipulating the myostatin pathway will actually benefit humans in term on degenerative diseases. (Lee 2004)
Manipulation of the myostatin pathway will not only affect degenerative diseases, but it can also help with obesity and type II diabetes. (Lee 2004)
However, it is a concern that if the myostatin activity is inhibited that the surrounding amount of satellite cells will rapidly deplete which reduces the ability of the muscle to regenerate. (Lee 2004)
Just like mice, the natural mutation will lead to a failure in fat accumulation which will further lead on to deal with abnormal fat accumulation. (Lee
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