N. Meningitis Research Paper

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N. meningitidis can cause pneumonia, pericarditis, conjuctivis, endopthalmitis, septic arthritis, pelvic or chromic low-grade septicaemia but there are only two types of typical diseases caused by N. meningitidis: meningococcal meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia. And although there are 13 serogroups, only A, B, C, Y and W-135 cause majority of the disease. These diseases occur rapidly once infected and individuals infected will become detrimentally ill within 24-48 hours and can die within a few hours of contraction. The initial signs of the symptoms are nonspecific and can be mistaken for the flu, but the onset of fever, nausea, shivers would progress to severe headaches, photophobia, confusion and vomiting.  Meningococcal meningitis: In Europe and the Americas, serogroups B and C are predominant while in Africa serogroups A and C are dominant; serogroup W-135 is pandemic and serogroup Y as the dominant strain of infection in the United States and Canada. There are 75-80% of patients acquiring this type of infection which is an infection of the brain and spinal cord with a mortality rate of 2-4%. Bacterial meningitis causes brain damage, hearing loss and learning disabilities to those that do survive. Meningococci shed their endotoxin, which damages tissues and activates the cytokine cascade (inflammation). This then allows them access to the subarachnoid space causing the blood-brain barrier to seep. 
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