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Study Guide for Final Exam

The final will be cumulative, although much of the test will focus somewhat more heavily on the material covered since the last midterm. There will be some questions that have been taken directly from the two earlier midterms. You’ll almost certainly recognize these questions; if you’ve reviewed the earlier exams with me in class (or in person) & know the answers to most or all of the questions, you’ll breeze through them. Read each question carefully, though, as you may be reading a question (or a variant of a question) that was on a different version of the test than the one you received (e.g., I pulled the question from an older “A” test, but you received the “B” test). Make sure you know what you’re
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How are species defined? What are the differences among the various ways in which species are defined? What are the advantages and/or disadvantages of these approaches?
Is extinction normal? What can cause extinctions? What are mass extinctions? (I asked you to remember two of these.)

Air Resources

What is the difference between weather and climate?
What are the different layers of the atmosphere? What are some characteristics of each? I mentioned in class that you should focus on knowing about two of these atmospheric layers in particular.
What are “criteria pollutants”? Know them.
What is the “greenhouse effect”? How does it operate? What elements contribute to it?

Water Resources

Where does our water come from? What is the hydrologic cycle, & how does it work?
How much global water (in percentage) is locked up in the oceans, or in snow, or in lakes and rivers? Know these proportions.
What are the three major ways in which humans use water? What are the ways in which domestic water is used? What activity constitutes the largest use of domestic water?

Global Climate Change

What are the differences between weather and climate?
What are Milankovitch cycles? How do these cycles affect global climate?
What other global factors have an influence on global climate?
What is the overall tend observed in global temperatures over the past thirty years or so? What is the projected trend over the next few decades (if
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